АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ АСПИРАНТОВ

 

Английский язык для аспирантов: учеб.-метод. пособие

Портал PhDRu предлагает аспирантам и соискателям учёной степени кандидата наук ознакомиться с пособием Н.А. Ашихмановой «Английский язык для аспирантов».

Пособие содержит грамматический практикум, аутентичные тексты, а также упражнения для закрепления знаний по английскому языку. Предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы аспирантов, магистрантов и широкого круга лиц, изучающих английский язык.

Английский язык для аспирантов: учеб.-метод. пособие / сост.: Н.А. Ашихманова, В.А. Брылева; ВолГУ, Каф. англ. филологии. — Волгоград: Изд-во ВолГУ, 2007. — 128 с.

МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ

РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ

ВОЛГОГРАДСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

Кафедра английской филологии

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ АСПИРАНТОВ

Учебно-методическое пособие

Волгоград 2007

Составители:

Н. А. Ашихманова, В. А. Брылева

Рецензент

канд. филол. наук, доц. каф. английского языка ВолГУ Е. А. Курченкова

Печатается по решению ученого совета

факультета лингвистики и межкультурной коммуникации ВолГУ

(протокол № 8 от 28.04 2007 г.).

Английский язык для аспирантов [Текст] : учеб.-метод. пособие / сост. : Н. А. Ашихманова, В. А. Брылева ; ВолГУ, Каф. англ. филологии. – Волгоград : Изд-во ВолГУ, 2007. – 128 с.

Пособие содержит грамматический практикум, аутентичные тексты, а также упражнения для закрепления знаний по английскому языку.

Предназначено для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы аспирантов, магистрантов и широкого круга лиц, изучающих английский язык.

Составители учебно-методического пособия несут ответственность за использованные материалы.

© Составление. Н. А. Ашихманова,

В. А. Брылева, 2007

© Оформление. Издательство

Волгоградского государственного

университета, 2007

 

 

ОГЛАВЛЕНИЕ

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ………………………………………………………………………………….. 5

UNIT I………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Module A. Части речи в английском языке. 6

Module B.. 12

UNIT II 17

Module A. Понятие о сказуемом. 17

Module B.. 20

UNIT III 24

Module A. Состав сказуемого. 24

Module B.. 32

UNIT IV.. 37

Module A. Образование вопроса. 37

Module B.. 40

UNIT V.. 45

Module A. Анализ сказуемого с точки зрения категории времени

и вида (Tense And Aspect) 45

Module B.. 51

UNIT VI 56

Module A. Анализ сказуемого с точки зрения категории залога (Voice) 56

Module B.. 60

UNIT VII 65

Module A. Анализ сказуемого с точки зрения наклонения (Mood) 65

Module B.. 71

UNIT VIII 75

Module A. Анализ сказуемого с модальным глаголом. 75

Module B.. 78

Unit IX.. 81

Module A. Неличные формы глагола

и их простые функции в предложении

(Non-finite Forms and their Simple functions in Sentence) 81

Module B.. 85

UNIT X.. 90

Module A. Неличные формы и их конструкции в предложении

(Non-finite forms and their constructions) 90

Module B.. 93

Unit XI 96

Module A. Конструкции с ing-формами в предложении

(The ing-form Constructions in a Sentence) 96

Module B.. 99

UNIT XII 103

Module A. Придаточные предложения (Subordinate Clauses) 103

Module B.. 107

APPENDIX 1. How to retell a text. 112

APPENDIX 2. WORKING ON THE TOPIC: MY SCIENTIFIC

(RESEARCH) WORK.. 114

APPENDIX 3. Таблица неправильных глаголов.. 116

Список использованной литературы…………………………….. 117

KEYS………………………………………………………………………………………………… 118

 

Предисловие

Данное пособие предназначено для подготовки аспирантов и соискателей к сдаче кандидатского экзамена по английскому языку и нацелено на обучение извлечению информации из англоязычных текстов с целью их последующего реферирования.

Каждый урок (Unit) рассчитан на 2-3 академических часа аудиторной работы и состоит из двух модулей: А – грамматический практикум, В – предтекстовые упражнения на аудирование и последующая работа с текстом с заданиями на анализ грамматических структур, закрепление лексики и пересказ.

Пособие также содержит приложение с рекомендациями по пересказу текста и самостоятельной работе с темой.

Занятия в первые три недели курса при 4 часах в неделю предлагается строить по схеме:

1. Объяснение грамматического материала и выполнение упражнений модуля А (1-2 часа)

2. Аудирование и работа над заданиями модуля В (2-3 часа)

3. Самостоятельная работа над пересказом или реферированием текста модуля В (1-1,5 часа)

 

На четвертой или пятой неделе курса рекомендуется каждому обучаемому в дополнение к самостоятельной работе над модулем В использовать для чтения и реферирования тексты по специальности на английском языке. Контроль за чтением профессионально ориентированных текстов осуществляется в индивидуальном порядке во второй половине занятия пятой недели курса.

Unit I

Module A. Части речи в английском языке

В английском языке существуют те же части речи, что и в русском:

The Noun (имя существительное)

The Verb (глагол)

The Adjective (имя прилагательное)

The Adberb (наречие)

The Pronoun (местоимение)

The Preposition (предлог)

The Numeral (числительное)

The Conjunction (союз)

The Interjection (междометие)

Единственной частью речи, которой нет в русском языке, является

The Article (артикль)

Рассмотрим наиболее значимые части речи – the Noun и the Verb.

Имя существительное (The Noun)

Наиболее существенные признаки Noun состоят в том, что:

·  Оно имеет перед собой артикль, не имеющий какого-либо лексического значения

·  Оно практически не имеет никаких падежных и родовых окончаний.

Как переводится Noun на русский язык?

Это зависит от двух параметров:

места Noun в предложении

— наличия перед ним предлога

Если Noun стоит перед сказуемым и не имеет перед собой предлога, то его надо переводить существительным в именительном падеже, так как это – ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕЕ.

The teacher told the students an interesting story. – Учитель рассказал студентам интересную историю.

The students told the teacher an interesting story. – Студенты рассказали учителю интересную историю.

Если Noun стоит после сказуемого, то оно является ДОПОЛНЕНИЕМ (прямым, косвенным или предложным) и его надо переводить в том падеже, котором требует предшествующий глагол. Если стоят 2 Nouns подряд , то первое из них – это (1) косвенное дополнение, а второе (2) – прямое.

The teacher explained the students ((1) – кому?) some new rules ((2) – что?). Учитель объяснил студентам новые правила.

Noun может быть также ОБСТОЯТЕЛЬСТВОМ, которое стоит в конце или начале предложения и всегда имеет предлог.

My husband works at the hospital. Мой муж работает в больнице.

In autumn leaves turn yellow and red. Осенью листья становятся желтыми и красными.

Noun может быть также левым ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕМ (ЛО) и переводится в таком случае существительным в родительном падеже или прилагательным (если его можно образовать).

Как переводить несколько существительных подряд?

Цепочки существительных из трех и более компонентов нужно переводить начиная с последнего компонента:

Researchло1 laboratory works on the problem of image processing.

Научно-исследовательская лаборатория работает над проблемой обработки изображения.

Unversityло1 researchло2 laboratory works on

Университетская научно-исследовательская лаборатория работает над… (научно-исследовательская лаборатория университета).

Aerospaceло1 unversityло2 researchло3 laboratory works on

Научно-исследовательская лаборатория аэрокосмического университета работает над…

Samaraло1 aerospaceло2 unversityло3 researchло4 laboratory works onНаучно-исследовательская лаборатория Самарского аэрокосмического университета работает над…

Возможный алгоритм перевода:

a) найдите последний элемент цепочки: Samaraло1 aerospaceло2 unversityло3 researchло4 laboratoryлаборатория

b) задайте от него вопрос к соседнему левому компоненту: лаборатория какая?- исследовательская или лаборатория чего? – исследования

c) далее от первого левого компонента – вопрос к следующему: исследования чего?- университета – университета какого? аэрокосмического…

Samaraло1 aerospaceло2 unversityло3 researchло4 laboratory:

(Подстрочный перевод: Лаборатория исследовательская университета аэрокосмического самарского)

EXERCISES

Определите границы цепочки существительных, найдите главный компонент, переведите.

1.  They eagerly participated in Soros society branch offices transformation but the development strategies appeared to be inconvenient.

2.  Capital flows have increased, as have foreign exchange and securities trade.

3.  The securities markets consist mainly of the International Stock Exchange offices

4.  There are extensive interior upland areas and regions facing the Irish Sea where the Celtic languages speakers percentage rises to 50 percent

Образование Noun

Существуют 3 типа Noun:

1.  Простые: book, pool, etc.

2.  Производные, образуемые с помощью таких наиболее характерных суффиксов, как:

er (or): worker, researcher

ment: increment, development

ness: kindness, rigidness

ion (tion): motion, relation, precision

dom: kingdom, freedom

hood: childhood, likelihood

age: heritage

(i)an: librarian

ship: relationship, leadership

(i)ty: sensibility, activity

С Noun могут использоваться те же префиксы, что и с глаголами и прилагательными:

un (in) – отрицание

re – повторяемость, и т. д.

Например:

Employmentunemployment (занятость – безработица)

Appraisalreappraisal (оценка – переоценка)

см. далее Практикум по определению частей речи в Unit III

3.  Составные: bedroom, newspaper, deadlock

Определение Noun

Большинство Nouns сопровождается особыми словами, которые называются определителями. Наличие одного определителя исключает использования другого.

— Однозначные определители

а) суффиксы (см. выше)

б) наличие артикля (a, the) или местоимений (some, any)

в) притяжательный падеж (‘s)

— Неоднозначные определители

а) место в предложении

б) наличие левого определения:

— прилагательного

— местоимения

— числительного

— другого Noun

EXERCISES

Отметьте все слова, имеющие суффиксы Noun. Найдите интернациональные слова, а также составные Nouns.

I A-1

I A-2

1. moon

1. lonely

2. just

2. revolution

3. emotion

3. minute

4. rear

4. reason

5. making

5. calculation

6. leader

6. blindness

7. treatment

7. improvement

8. scholarship

8. shortage

9. organizer

9. constitution

10. moonlight

10. airplane

I A-3

I A-4

1. raider

1. satisfaction

2. cry

2. computer

3. be

3. different

4. centimeter

4. male

5. resemble

5. proximity

6. receiver

6. coffee

7. radio

7. illness

8. user

8. day

9. interesting

9. riverside

10. prolongation

10. fulfilment

I A-5. Выберите правильный вариант перевода (без словаря)

1. Plato’s teachings had a profound EFFECT on Aristotle

1)  глубина

2)  влияние

3)  аффект

4)  последствие

2. The superintendent was the PRINCIPAL speaker at the school board meeting.

1)  единственный

2)  главный

3)  принципиальный

4)  самый важный

3. He was an EXEMPLARY prisoner despite his past experience.

1)  образцовый

2)  экземпляр

3)  образчик

4)  примерный

4. It is IMPERATIVE that they arrive on time for the lecture.

1)  необходимо

2)  предполагается

3)  наверняка

4)  императорно

5. After listening to the testimony, the members of the jury delivered their VERDICT.

1)  решение

2)  перекрестный допрос

3)  приговор

4)  свидетель

Порядок слов в английском предложении

В английском предложении те же самые члены предложения, что и в русском:

Subject подлежащее (S) вопрос: кто/что?

Predicate сказуемое (P) вопрос: что делает/делал/сделал/сделает/будет делать?

Object дополнение: direct – прямое(Obj/dir) вопрос: кого/что? кому/чему?, indirect – косвенное(Obj/ind), prepositional – предложное (Obj/prep) вопросы: все в косвенных падежах – с кем/чем?, о ком/чем?, из кого/чего? и т. п.

Attribute определение(Attr) вопрос: какой/чей?

Adverbial modifier обстоятельство (Adv)

Порядок слов в английском предложении – жесткий, т. е. каждый член предложения всегда стоит на своем месте. В структуру предложения S-P-O могут вставляться Attr и Adv, а также косвенные и предложные Obj.

Запомните следующую схему порядка слов в предложении:

 

0

1

2

3

4

 

группа подлежащего

группа сказуемого

 

 

Attr

Obj(prep)

Attr

Obj(ind)

 

Obj(prep)

Obj(ind)

 

ADV

S

PR

OBJ(dir)

ADV

 

Obj(prep)

 

Attr

Attr

ADV

Attr

Attr

 

UsersS askedPr librariansObj (ind) questionsObj (dir).

Пользователи задавали библиотекарям вопросы.

YoungAttr usersS asked Pr professional Attr librarians Obj (ind) many Attr questions Obj (dir) about the Internet Attr.

Молодые пользователи задавали профессиональным библиотекарям много вопросов об Интернете.

(In the reading hall) Adv(0) young Attr usersS(1) asked Pr(2) professional Attr librarians Obj (ind) many Attr questions Obj (dir3a) about the Internet Attr in the reading hallAdv(0).

Молодые пользователи задавали профессиональным библиотекарям много вопросов об Интернете в читальном зале.

В предложении могут присутствовать два прямых дополнения (Objects) – в этом случае первое будет переводиться дательным падежом, а второе винительным:

— Give the boy this book – Дай мальчику книгу

Первое “дательное” дополнение можно переставить, но тогда в английском предложении появится to:

— Give this book to the boy

Порядок обстоятельств времени и места в предложении – в начале и в конце. Если обстоятельств времени и места в предложении несколько, то их порядок следующий:

(когда?)-(где?) – SPO – (как?)-где?-когда?

Yesterday at the stadium he walked dangerousely along the top of the wall

Around the square they saw nice buildings and the statue of the queen in the middle

A few years ago my research was top of the pops in the world of applied linguistics

Если в предложении два обстоятельства, одно из которых намного длиннее другого, то оно ставится в конце предложения:

-They left at 3.00 with a great deal of noise

EXERCISES

I A-6. Найдите в следующих преложениях Nouns, определите, какими членами предложения они являются и переведите все предложения на русский язык.

1.  In this chapter we discuss the factors for the organizations of the book collections.

2.  In scientific institutions most technicians have a broad knowledge of organizing principles and methods.

3.  Users can find any item with minimum effort and time.

4.  The association represents all types of libraries – public, school, academic, state, and special libraries.

5.  The South American Industry Association is the oldest and the largest organization.

6.  Space requirements are discussed in the 3-d section.

I A-7. Исправьте предложения так, чтобы они имели смысл:

1.  The passport examined the customs officer

2.  These catalogues don’t like researchers

3.  Have the new sales department seen the visitors

4.  The breakfast has enjoyed the guests.

5.  Give these books engineers on topography.

6.  My tutor sent American researchers to his latest achievements.

7.  These “interdependence” gave the name this phenomenon of psychologists.

I A-8. Постройте предложения в нужном порядке

in October/my term/begins

from the bank/a loan/you’ll have to get

of the Scottish people /are able to speak /2 percent / Gaelic

from the four /is derived mainly /Germanic dialects /Modern English

rejected / of the pope / Henry VIII / the absolute supremacy

the introduction of/ also saw /the 19th century/ from /sects / the United States

I A-9. Выберите правильный вариант

1. After the funeral, the residents of the apartment building _______.

1)  sent faithfully flowers all weeks to the cemetery

2)  sent to the cemetery each week flowers faithfully

3)  sent flowers faithfully to the cemetery each week

4)  sent each week faithfully to the cemetery flowers

2. The professor said that _______________.

1)  the students their reports can be received on Monday

2)  the reports on Monday could be received from the students by him

3)  the students could hand in their reports on Monday

4)  the students will on Monday the reports hand in

3. The teachers have had some problems deciding ___________.

1)  when to the students they shall return the final papers

2)  when are they going to return to the students the final papers

3)  when they should return the final papers to the students

4)  the time when the final papers they should return for the students

4. This year will be difficult for this organization because ____________.

1)  they have less money and volunteers than they had last year

2)  they have money less and volunteers fewer than last year they had

3)  the last year they did not have as few and little volunteers money

4)  there are fewer money and volunteers that in the last year there were

Module B.

Listening

·  What is your favourite dish? Why?

·  Have you ever tasted ethnic food (e. g. Chinese, Indian, etc.)? Did you enjoy it?

·  What is junk food? Why do people eat so much junk food nowadays?

Read the following summary and guess the correct items. Then, listen to the tape and find out if your guesses were correct.

In today’s world, people have less time for eating, let alone 1) shopping/cooking. That’s why junk food is so popular. In fact, one 2) hotel/restaurant group has announced that its 3) guests/staff can order 4) junk/fast food through room service. Junk food is 5) high/ low in saturated fat, which is linked with a higher risk of 6) diabetes/cancer. Our eating habits have changed due to lack of 7) money/time. Also, the amount of exercise we do has 8) decreased/increased. Researchers suggest that the new generation will be more likely to suffer from heart and 9) kidney/liver disease. But if we improve our eating habits, we will be better equipped to deal with our 10) stressful/boring lifestyles.

Reading

You are going to read a newspaper article about unhealthy food. Six para­graphs have been removed from the article. Choose from paragraphs A-G the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).

JUNK FOOD?

In today’s fast-moving world, people have less and less time to spend eating, let alone cooking. It is probably for this reason that junk food has become so popular, and there’s no doubt that it’s here to stay. In fact, it seems that you simply can’t get away from it. One British hotel group recently announced that its guests are able to order fast food through room service, a move which is seen by many as signifying a new era in the couch potato lifestyle. So what exactly is junk food?

0__B___

Obviously, a diet of junk food is not the best thing for your health, particularly as it is high in saturated fat. In 1993, the Journal of the National Cancer Institute reported this type of fat to be associated with a greater risk of cancer.

1_______

The best advice, then, for those who cannot live without their hamburgers or chocolate bars, is to limit the amount of junk food they eat. A little now and then will probably do no harm. But why have our eating habits changed? “It’s lack of time and loss of tradition,” says one expert.

2______

Another alarming thing about people’s lifestyles today is that while the amount of junk food we eat has increased, the amount of exercise we do has actually decreased. Exercise plays an important part in keeping the body fit and healthy; it helps to control our weight and, if taken regularly, can also decrease our chances of having a heart attack in later life.

3_____

Even though people nowadays are actually far more aware of the importance of exercise and a healthy diet than they were a few years ago, the new unhealthy way of life is surprisingly pop­ular. This is illustrated by statistics gathered by researchers over the past two decades.

4______

Researchers suggest that the new generation will be much more likely to suffer from heart and liver disease. What can’t be emphasised enough is the fact that a balanced diet and regular exercise bring significant health benefits.

5______

Ironically, if they were to make time to exercise and improve ,their eating habits, they would probably find that they were far better equipped to deal with their stressful lifestyles than they are now.

A

Recent research has shown that young French people, who prefer burgers and chips to rich gourmet dishes, tend to become overweight. Weight gained in adolescence is extremely hard to lose in later life, so researchers are predicting that the new French generation are not going to be admired for their slim figures as the French have traditionally been.

B

Basically, it is anything that is high in calories but lacking in nutrition. Hamburgers, crisps, chocolate bars and hot dogs fall into this category. Pizzas, although they can have vegetable and cheese toppings, are also included as they contain a lot of fat.

C

Not all junk food is bad for your health, however. Some hamburgers, for example, are very high in nutrients and low in fat. It is just a question of find­ing out what goes into the food before you decide to eat it.

D

Apart from the risk of cancer, another side effect of consuming highly fattening junk food is that you are likely to gain weight. This is especially true because you tend to eat more, as junk food is less satisfying and lower in vital nutrients than health­ier food.

E

You can gain anything from glowing skin to an allround feeling of good health. One way or another, the vast majority of people seem to be missing out on this, due mainly to the pressures of modern life.

F

What is more, you don’t have to exercise much to gain visible benefits. Doctors say that twenty minutes’ exercise three times a week is all that is necessary.

G

He explains that people are too busy to cook and eat proper meals, so they grab whatever is available – and that is usually junk food. Also, the style of life represented on TV, especially in music videos, is fast. Young people pick up the idea that speed means excitement, whereas anything traditional is slow and boring. As a result, they turn down traditional food and go for junk food instead.

Vocabulary Practice

1.  Look at the words in bold in the text and try to explain them.

2.  Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below:

let alone

rejecting

predicting

adolescence

signify

gain

glowing skin

consume

nutrients

limit

research

tend to

a.  Vegetables are an essential part of our diet as they contain a lot of ……. (healthy substances)

b.  I don’t even know what a breadfruit looks like, …………………………… what it tastes like! (not to mention)

c.  You should…………………………….. the amount of chocolate you eat if you want to lose weight. (restrict)

d.  The stars on the label………. that the brandy is of the best quality. (mean)

e.  Scientific……… has shown that saturated fats are a major cause of cancer. (investigation)

f.  People who eat lots of sweets ………… have dental problems. (are likely to)

g.  Jill is overweight because she ate so much junk food during her ……..(teenage years)

h.  Her……………… is a result of all the fruit and vegetables she eats. (healthy­ looking complexion)

i.  More and more people are …………meat in favour of more fruit and vegetables. (not accepting)

j.  Unless you cut down on junk food and sweets, you will …………. weight! (put on)

k.  Nutritionists are…… that junk food consumption will increase in the near future. (foreseeing)

l.  Young people ………… large amounts of carbonated drinks with their meals. (take in)

3.  Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the words only once.

room

vast

chocolate

junk

eating

couch-potato

to do

to keep

gourmet

balanced

heart

saturated

fast-moving

the pressures

high

side

1 a(n) …………. world

2 …………………. bars

3 a(n) ……….. lifestyle

4 ………….. the body fit

5 ……………. in calories

6 ………………… food

7 ……………….. habits

8 ……………….. disease

9 ………… of modern life

10 ………………….. fat

11 ……………… service

12 ……………. no harm

13 a(n) ………….. diet

14 ……………… dishes

15 the……….. majority

16 ……………… effects

4.  Choose the correct item.

1. As he didn’t want to cook, he decided to ______________a pizza instead.

1.  ask for

2.  demand

3.  order

4.  command

2. She had no time to go out for lunch so she ________ a snack instead.

1.  grabbed

2.  snatched

3.  took

4.  bit

3. I hope I won’t _________ weight while I’m on holiday.

1.  earn

2.  win

3.  put

4.  gain

4. After the Christmas holidays, I am going on a ________ because some of my favourite clothes don’t fit me anymore.

1.  diet

2.  fast

3.  nutrition

4.  health

5.  Fill in the correct preposition, then choose any five items and make sentences.

1) to be popular………………… sb; 2) to be high …….. calories; 3) to be associated ……. sb/sth; 4) to be aware ……… sth; 5) to suffer ………. sth; 6) to deal sb/sth; 7) to be lacking ………………. sth; 8) the loss …………sb/sth; 9) to miss out ……….. sth; 10) to prefer sb/sth …………… sb/ sth

Talking points

1.  Read the whole text again and make notes under the following headings:

·  Reasons for the popularity of junk food

·  Dangers of eating junk food

·  Positive effects of eating healthy food

 

Then, give a short talk about junk food. Use the following expressions: Although, Moreover, However, In spite of the fact that, I believe, I think, In my opinion, etc.

UNIT II

Module A. Понятие о сказуемом.

Сказуемое (Predicate)

Слово не является сказуемым, если

·  перед ним стоит частица to

·  первый компонент словосочетания имеет —ing окончание

EXERCISES

Подчеркните словосочетания, не являющиеся сказуемыми:

II A – 1

II A – 2

II A – 3

1.

was being asked

1.

was being closed

1.

is being walking

2.

must do

2.

must see

2.

ought to help

3.

to have been reading

3.

to have been watching

3.

to have been thinking

4.

will have read

4.

will have smoke

4.

will have helped

5.

has been done

5.

had been produced

5.

has been thought

6.

being done

6.

being shouted

6.

being played

7.

are producing

7.

are speaking

7.

am dreaming

8.

having answered

8.

having written

8.

having seen

9.

could be translated

9.

ca be watched

9.

can be played

10.

to be reading

10.

to be painting

10.

to be speaking

II A – 4

II A – 5

1.

will be being played

1.

will be being seen

2.

had to throw

2.

had to see

3.

to have bee driving

3.

to have being doing

4.

will have been seen

4.

has been thought will have done

5.

had been played

5.

has been thought

6.

being examined

6.

begin thought

7.

is thinking

7.

are driving

8.

having spoken

8.

having read

9.

migh be read

9.

can be seen

10.

to be chosen

10.

to offering

Сигнальные признаки сказуемого

Сказуемое может содержать следующие компоненты, наличие которых является однозначным сигнальным признаком сказуемого:

1-я группа

2-я группа

3-я группа

4-я группа

shall

(to be)

(to have)

do

will

am

have to

did

should

is

have

does

would

are

has

must

were

had

can (could)

was

may (might)

need

ought to

is to

EXERCISES

Выпишите из каждого столбца по 3 слова – однозначных признаков сказуемого.

II A6.

would

only

did

might

had

soon

must

but

often

were

again

have

very

could

never

ought to

are

will

may

with

doing

when

but

as

Выпишите номер предложений, в которых сказуемые обладают однозначными признаками.

II A-7.

1.  All post graduates study free of charge.

2.  Water will boil when sufficiently heated.

3.  Science has become an affair of the state.

4.  Mrs. Smith wanted to send a telegram.

5.  Schools of higher learning develop the first elements of scientific training.

6.  The team didn’t arrive on time.

7.  Copper is a cheap conductor.

8.  Professors teach students how to use electronic devices.

9.  You shouldn’t mind his manners.

Сказуемое может обладать также неоднозначными сигнальными признаками, к которым относятся ed, —s, —es на конце слов. Однако нужно помнить, что окончание s может определять множественное число существительного (houses-вмещает / houses— дома), а окончание ed может принадлежать страдательному причастию (cleaned rooms – убирали комнаты /убранные комнаты). Признаки как однозначные, так и неоднозначные могут отсутствовать вообще. В английском языке слова могут переходить из одной части речи в другую, не меняя при этом ничего: ни ударения, ни написания. Например, house – дом, to house – вмещать в себя, form – форма, to form – формировать, program – программа, to program – программировать, и т. д. Такой способ словообразования называется конверсией. Определить, какой частью речи это слово является – Noun или Verb – можно только по месту в предложении, то есть по его функции.

а) Слово не является сказуемым в большинстве случаев, если перед ним стоит:

·  артикль

·  предлог

·  притяжательное или указательное местоимение

·  прилагательное или существительное в качестве левого определения.

б) Из двух слов с окончанием –ed, следующих одно за другим, второе – всегда сказуемое.

The results received proved to be ineffective.

EXERCISES

Укажите предложения, где сказуемые имеют неоднозначные признаки или какие-либо признаки вообще отсутствуют. Найдите сказуемое в каждом предложении и назовите их признаки.

II A-8

1.  He wanted to do many tasks.

2.  The wind blows during the day.

3.  The students study at the University.

4.  He carried a bag full of cucumbers.

5.  Mrs. Hightrab types at her work.

6.  The boats have just come into the terminal.

7.  Mr. White and his sons go to Manchester every day.

8.  The ship is to leave at ten minutes past nine.

9.  He presented his girl-friend with a bunch of flowers.

10.  There were several schoolgirls in the yard.

II A-9

Укажите номера предложений, в которых подчеркнутые слова являются сказуемыми.

1.  We usually park the car in the street.

2.  Children are often taken to the park for a walk.

3.  This is a question I couldn’t answer.

4.  You question the teacher too often.

5.  We wonder whether his proposal will be approved.

6.  The proposal approved seemed incompetent.

7.  The United States is a highly developed country.

8.  Ohm’s Law states that resistance equals voltage divided by current.

9.  He looked at the watch.

10.  We often watch him coming here.

11.  My studies show that I don’t make great progress.

12.  He studies English literature.

Module B.

Reading

You are going to read a newspaper article about a young person’s career. For questions 1-6, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

Living by the Sword

When Cristina Sanchez told her parents that she wanted to become a bullfighter instead of a hairdresser, they weren’t too pleased. But when she was eighteen her parents realised that she was serious and sent her to a bullfighting school in Madrid, where she trained with professionals.

Since last July, Sanchez has been the most successful novice in Spain and is very popular with the crowds. After brilliant performances in Latin America and Spain earlier this year, Sanchez has decided that she is ready to take the test to become a matador de toros. Out of the ring, Sanchez does not look like a matador. She is casually elegant, very feminine and wears her long blond hair loose. She seems to move much more like a dancer than an athlete, but in the ring she is all power.

When she was fourteen, Sanchez’s father warned her that the world of bullfighting was hard enough for a man and even harder for a woman. It seems he is right. “It really is a tough world for a woman,” says Sanchez. “You start with the door shut in your face. A man has to prove himself only once, whereas I have had to do it ten times just to get my foot in the door.”

In perhaps the world’s most masculine profession, it would seem strange if Sanchez had not met problems. But even though Spanish women won the legal right to fight bulls on equal terms with men in 1974, there are still matadors like Jesulin de Ubrique who refuse to fight in the same ring as her.

Sanchez lives with her family in Parla, south of Madrid. Her family is everything to her and is the main support in her life. “My sisters don’t like bullfighting, they don’t even watch it on TV, and my mother would be the happiest person in the world if I gave it up. But we get on well. Mum’s like my best friend.”

37

 

When Sanchez is not fighting she has a tough fitness routine – running, working out in the gym and practising with her father in the afternoon. By nine she is home for supper, and by eleven she is in bed. She doesn’t drink, smoke or socialise. “You have to give up a lot,” says Sanchez. “It’s difficult to meet people, but it doesn’t worry me – love does not arrive because you look for it.”

Sanchez spends most of the year travelling: in summer to Spanish and French bullfights and in winter to Latin America. Her mother dislikes watching Sanchez fight, but goes to the ring when she can. If not, she waits at home next to the telephone. Her husband has had to ring three times to say that their daughter had been injured, twice lightly in the leg and once seriously in the stomach. After she has been wounded, the only thing Sanchez thinks about is how quickly she can get back to the ring. “It damages your confidence,” she says “but it also makes you mature. It’s just unprofessional to be injured. You cannot let it happen.” Sanchez is managed by Simon Casas, who says, “At the moment there is no limit to where she can go. She has a champion’s mentality, as well as courage and technique.”

1. When Sanchez told her parents that she wanted to be a bullfighter they ________

A.  felt a little pleased.

B.  thought she was too young.

C.  thought she had a good sense of humour.

D.  were initially opposed to the idea.

2. Sanchez thinks that ______________

A.  living in today’s world is difficult for a woman.

B.  bullfighting is a difficult career for women.

C.  it is almost impossible to succeed as a female bullfighter.

D.  women have to demonstrate their skills as much as male-bullfighters do.

3. Sanchez’s mother _______________

A.  is everything to the family.

B.  prefers to watch her daughter on TV.

C.  supports her more than the rest of her family.

D.  would prefer Cristina to leave the ring.

4. What does “it” in line 37 refer to?

A.  the fitness routine

B.  not socialising

C.  giving up

D.  smoking

5. Sanchez doesn’t socialise often because

A.  she doesn’t like cigarettes and alcohol.

B.  her work takes up most of her time.

C.  she is worried about meeting people.

D.  it’s too difficult to look for friends.

6. What does Sanchez think about after being injured?

A. her next chance to fight bulls

B.  her abilities

C.  her development

D.  her skills

Vocabulary Practice

1.  Look at the words in bold in the text and try to explain them.

2.  Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below:

get my foot in the door

confidence

novice

professional

face

support

masculine

socialise

mature

courage

a.  Doctors don’t have much time to…………………. as they work very long hours. (mix with people)

b.  The experienced chess player easily beat the …………..who was still learning the rules of the game. (beginner)

c.  After months of training the young fire­fighter was ready to…………..a real fire. (deal with)

d.  There aren’t many female boxers as it is a very………….sport. (male)

e.  The contacts I had, helped me……… when I was looking for a job. (get started)

f.  My parents were a great…………… to me when I lost my job. (help)

g.  My tennis coach is a…….. ; he has been playing in international matches for years.(paid expert)

h.  Working as a chef for five years gave Brian the ………. to open his own restaurant. (sense of self-worth)

i.  Fire-fighters need a lot of…………… as their work is often very dangerous. (bravery)

j.  The manager didn’t hire the young man, as he didn’t think he was ………….enough to deal with the stresses of the job. (emotionally developed)

3.  Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the words only once.

a champion’s

to wear

to win

to prove

limit

tough

to damage

to give

popular

to take

on equal terms

casually

1. a……………. world

2.…………. sb the chance to

3.…………….. the legal right

4.……………your confidence

5. there is no…….. to

6. ……… with crowds

7. ……………….. elegant

8. ………………….. a test

9. to fight………… with

10. …………. my hair loose

11. ………………. himself

12. to have ………..mentality

4.  Fill in the correct word.

profession, job, career, occupation

1.  Her …….: as a dancer – came to an end when she broke her leg.

2.  My father has been unable to find a ………for the past two years.

3.  You must write your name, age and ……….on the application form.

4.  John is a doctor by.…..and has his own practice in London.

5.  Fill in the correct preposition, then choose any five items and make sentences.

1) to be serious sth; 2) to be popular sb; 3) decide ……..sth; 4) to warn sb………… sb; 5) to be woried. sb/sth; 6) to think ……….sb/sth; 7) to live………….sb 8) to arrive a city; 9) to arrive …………the office; 10) a limit…………sth; 11) to be pleased sb/sth 12) to succeed……… sth;13) to prefer sth………sth. else;14) to socialise ………….people

Talking Points

1.  Read the text about Cristina Sanchez again and make notes under the following headings. Then, talk about her career.

training problems she faced fitness routine dangers qualities needed

2. 

 

Can you think of any other dangerous occupations?

UNIT III

Module A. Состав сказуемого

Компоненты сказуемого

Сказуемое в английском языке может состоять из компонентов, представленных в нижеприведенной таблице. Основой любого сказуемого является смысловой глагол. С компонентов, подчеркнутых линией, может начинаться сказуемое, но смысловой глагол всегда стоит в конце, причем он может иметь разные суффиксы.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

модальн. глагол

to have

to be и его формы спряжения

1 2 3 P1

to do

основа смыслового глагола

суф-фиксы

can

(could) May (might) must

have to

be

— ing

should

would

shall

will

need

ought to

have

been

tak(e)

ask

-ed

— en

— t

has

have

had

am

is

are

were

was

being

do

did

does

ask

take

ask

take

took

-s (es)

— ed

Последовательность компонентов можно также определять при помощи таблицы, пример самого длинного сказуемого: 1 2 5 8-9/ should have been taken. Более четырех компонентов в сказуемом не бывает.

EXERCISES

Выделите основу сказуемого:

III A -1.

III A-2.

will be coming home

principally didn’t get

when attended shall have been asked right then

baby brought screamed

question sofisticated enough was being answered at the

has been translating worried

this should be discovered some day

must take a must

would have been paid monday

washing up is undoubtedly done

by night it would have been brought

in summer could have died out

whether it is unprecedentally produced

will be doing something

tunned shall have been shown briefly

again delivered important products

was being carefully brought up

has been writing quietly a

proper should be repeatedly undone

up should warn the

III A-3. Выпишите сказуемые, выраженные более чем одним словом.

1.  The Institute was established in 1966.

2.  The book has already been discussed at our conference.

3.  The plan will have been fulfilled by next October.

4.  He might have never been to Kiev.

5.  The book is being translated at present

6.  The film was shown yesterday.

7.  The student is reading an article.

8.  The train will leave at 5.

9.  The train left at 5.

10.  The teacher corrected the students’ mistakes

Ill A-4 Пользуясь таблицей, расставьте слова так, чтобы получились сказуемые

will, developed, have, been

obtained, should, been, have

could, increased, be

gone, has

been, have, reported

travelled, have

investigated, is, being

be, might, doing

answered, been, has

discussed, been, had

produced, been, had

will, taught, have, been

written, should, been, have

could, developed, be

done, has

been, have, ignored

arrived, is, being

be, might, reading

Включение обстоятельственных слов

Между компонентами сказуемого иногда могут стоять обстоятельственные слова still, already, usually, yet, sometimes, never, ever, just, always, finally, now, soon, recently, hardly ever, even

Где располагаются обстоятельственные слова?

Их место внутри сказуемого:

1) после однозначного сигнального признака,

2) если такового нет, то перед основой (смысловым глаголом)

1. The plan has just been discussed.

2. He is usually reading at this time.

3. They do not often come to our place.

4. He has never gone to Britain.

5. Peter still attends classes in computing.

Кроме того, в этой же позиции могут стоять обстоятельственные слова со значением степени – completely, quite: I completely forgot her birthday

Обстоятельственные слова со значением образа действия (briefly, frequently, fluently, etc) могут находиться перед смысловым глаголом (после однозначного признака) или в конце предложения:

He briefly studied the problem

He studied the problem briefly

Однако, если дополнение слишком длинное, обстоятельство может находиться после смыслового глагола (характерно для журнализма):

We considered briefly the long-term solution to the problem

Если в предложении два обстоятельства, одно из которых намного длиннее другого, то оно ставится в конце предложения:

They left at 3.00 with a great deal of noise

Неглагольные элементы в сказуемом

В данной таблице представлены только глагольные элементы/ но сказуемое может включать еще именные элементы:

1) глагол(ы) + существительное

2) глагол(ы) + прилагательное

3) глагол (ы) + числительное

Основные глаголы, образующие именное сказуемое, это to be, to become, to seem, to prove(оказаться), to appear, to mean, to remain, to turn out, to grow

Самые распространенные из них: to be, to have

Признаками существительного в сказуемом являются:

• артикль;

• притяжательное местоимение;

• окончание множественного числа.

1 Не is an engineer.

2 They are engineers. 3. She is my mother.

Есть группа существительных, не имеющих множественного числа и очень часто употребляющихся без артикля:

wine, sugar, snow, mud и т д.

Кроме того, к этой группе относятся т. н. абстрактные существительные. ignorance/ fascination, freedom и т. д.

EXERCISES

1.  Выпишите сказуемые, в состав которых входят существительные.

III А-5.

will be water

were numerous

shall become an engineer

has been a student

will grow enormous

has gone

are attended

were numerous

will have been a student

shall become an

is in the room

was milk

are first-year students

is written

is a student

will grow enormous

was going

was happy

has been equipped

will be a teacher

were designers

will be named

is 20

will be a doctor

can seem artificial

are attended

is sugar

has remained stable

В состав сказуемого могут входить также и числительные, и прилагательные Последние имеют следующие суффиксы (их надо выучить!)

ful

ible

y

less

ent

ate

able

al

ic

ant

ical

ive

inal

ous

Например:

The book is ironical. I’m grateful.

Иногда существительные и прилагательные имеют те же суффиксы —

studentdependent. Отличать их надо по наличию перед таким словом признаков существительного (или их отсутствию).

EXERCISES

1.  Определите, что входит в состав сказуемого: прилагательное, числительное или существительное (если сказуемое составное именное)

III A-6.

is helpful

will be perfectly compatible

has been brought

is sixty.

will be my companion

is being heroic

was successful

could have been available

should have done

will have been a constituent

remained inappropriate

were delinquents

could be the tremendous news

ought to grow cynical

is sugar

grows meaningless

were careless

will be obedient

were launched

has become tolerable

is economical

was ignorant

has been chaotic

have proved boyish

Практикум по определению частей речи

Наиболее употребительные суффиксы.

Суффиксы существительных

1) Суффиксы, образующие существительные, обозначающие производителя действия или предмет, с помощью которого оно производится:

-er, or

to heat – heater, to read – reader, to use – user

а также некоторые другие случаи: Londoner, donator, sponsor, server

ant, – ent : to assist – assistant (помощник), to serve (служить) – servant (слуга)

-ist (указывает на профессию лица, на принадлежность к политическому или научному направлению):

typist, specialist, Baptist, medievalist, socialist

-ian, – ese (указывают на национальность или на принадлежность к городу):

Russian, Japanese, Lebanese, Ephiopian

-ian (указывает на профессию лица)

mathematician (математик), physician (врач)

2) Суффиксы, образующие отвлеченные существительные, обозначающие общие понятия (процессы, состояния, свойства, качества и т. д.). Такие существительные образуются от глаголов, прилагательных и существительных:

-ion, – tion, -ation, – sion, – ssion

to connect (соединять ) – connection (соединение), to communicate (сообщать) – communication (сообщение)

-age :to assemble (собирать) – assemblage (сборка), to clear (очищать) – clearage (очистка)

ment : to arrange (устраивать) – arrangement (устройство) , to measure (измерять) – measurement (измерение)

-ure : to press (давить) – pressure (давление), to seize (захватывать) – seizure (захват)

— ance, – ence : to depend (зависеть) – dependance (зависимость), to differ (различать) – difference (различие)

-ing (образует отглагольные существительные):

to begin (начинать) – beginning (начало), to cool (охлаждать) – cooling (охлаждение)

-ness : dark – darkness, effective – effectiveness

-ity : similar – similarity, special – speciality

-th : wide – width (ширина), strong – strength (сила)

-dom : free – freedom, wise – wisdom (мудрость)

-ism : social (социальный ) – socialism, real (действительн) – realism

hood : brother – brotherhood (братство), child – childhood (детство)

-ship : fellow (товарищ) – fellowship (товарищество), friend – friendship

Суффиксы прилагательных

1) Суффиксы, указывающие на наличие соответствующих качеств и свойств. Такие прилагательные образуются от глаголов и существительных:

-able, – ible : to adjust ( приспосабливать) – adjustable (приспособляемый), to move (двигать) – movable ( подвижный)

-ant, – ent : to differ (различаться) – different (различный), to depend (зависеть) – dependent (зависимый)

-ive : to act (действовать) – active (деятельный), to create (создавать) – creative (созидательный)

-al : industry – industrial, element (стихия) – elemental (стихийный)

-ful : harm – harmful, use (польза) – useful (полезный)

-en : wood – wooden, gold – golden

-ic : economy – economic, magnet – magnetic

-ous : mountain – mountainous, advantage (преимущество) – advantageous (выгодный)

-y : dirt – dirty, storm – stormy

-ly : day – daily (ежедневный), friend – friendly

2)Суффикс, указывающий на отсутствие соответствующих качеств и свойств:

-less : harm – harmless, truth – truthless (ложный)

3)Суффикс, указывающий на наличие признака в слабой степени или на принадлежность к национальности:

-ish :white – whitish (беловатый), old – oldish (староватый)

Суффиксы глаголов

Следующие суффиксы образуют глаголы от прилагательных и существительных:

-en (непродуктивный суффикс): deep – to deepen, fast – to fasten укреплять

-fy (малопродуктивный суффикс): intense – to intensify

-ize (продуктивный суффикс): crystal – to crystallize

Суффиксы наречий

Наиболее распространенным продуктивным суффиксом наречий является суффикс ly. Этот суффикс обычно присоединяется к прилагательным и образует наречия образа действия.

practical – practically, bad – badly, easy – easily, immense – immensely

Суффикс ward(s) указывает направление:

inward

внутрь

onward(s)

вперед

forward(s)

вперед

upward(s)

вверх

eastward(s)

на восток

EXERCISES

III A-7. Определите, какая часть речи выражена формулой: 

Xer, Xing, Xion, Xal, Xity, Xdom, Xation, Xage, Xfy, Xiant, Xently,  Xist, Xment, Xism, Xable, Xhood, Xful, Xent, Xy, Xish, Xless, Xful, Xness,  Xise, Xfy, Xhood, Xent, Xant, Xion, Xsion, Xward, Xly, Xing, Xate, Xsive, Xful, Xage, Xish, Xer, Xor, Xist, Xship, Xity, Xal, Xally, Xment. 

III A-8. Определите часть речи:

dependence, existence, priority, variety, classification, verify, independent,  building, activities, performance, enthusiastic, instance, possible, therapist, education, linguistic, legislative, evaporator, aesthetic, movable, flexible, responsibility, quantitative, collection, relativist, session, ordinary, library, vision, ferocity, existence, existentialism. 

III A-9. Переведите, пользуясь словарным значением только первых слов в группе:

to extend-extensive-extensible-extension-extensively-extended, library-librarian, to locate-located-location-local-locally, to legislate-legislative-legislation-legislator, move-movable-movement-moving, effect-effective-effectiveness, to communicate-communicative-communication-communicators, act-active-activity-actor-action, serve-service-serviceable, to provide-provision-provider, to know-well-known, able-ability, computer-computerize-computerization, research-researcher, important-importance, to educate-education-educated-educational, establish-establishment, reading-reader-readable, organize-organizer-organization-organizational, to perform-performance-performative-performer, theory-theorize-theoretic-theoretical-theorist, to collect-collector-collection-collective, to respond-response-respondent, distance-distant-distantly, to instruct-instructor-instructions, graphics-graphical-graphist-graphically, access-accessible-accessibility, change-changeable-changeability, deliver-deliverance-delivery-deliverer, to introduce-introduction-introductory, significant-significance-significantly-signify, survive-survival-survivability, process-to process-processor.

Наиболее употребительные префиксы

n- : common (обыкновенный) – uncommon (необыкновенный), trained (обученный) – untrained (необученный)

dis- : ability (способность) – disability (неспособность) , approval (одобрение) – disapproval (неодобрение)

un-, dis и de- : придают глаголам значения противоположного действия: to join (соединять) – to disjoin (разъединять), to centralize (централизовать) – to decentralize (децентрализовать)

non : metallic (металлический) – nonmetallic (неметаллический)

mis : придает глаголу значение сделать что-либо неправильно, ошибочно: to apply (применять) – to misapply (неправильно  использовать), to calculate (вычислять) – to miscalculate (ошибаться в расчете) 

under имеет значение недостаточно, ниже, под. Противоположен по значению префиксу overto estimate (оценивать) – to underestimate (недооценивать),  ground (земля) – underground (под землей, подземный)

anti имеет значение анти-, против-. Часто соответствует русскому противо-: aircraft (самолет) – antiaircraft (противовоздушный)

coимеет значение общности действияto exist (существовать) – to coexist (сосуществовать)

counter имеет значение против. Соответствует русским приставкам контр-, противо-:  action (действие) – counteraction (противодействие)

en присоединяется к существительным и прилагательным, образуя глагол: circle (круг) – to encircle (окружать), large (большой) – to enlarge (увеличивать)

inter имеет значение между, взаимноchangeable (заменяемый) –interchangeable (взаимозаменяемый)

overимеет значение сверх, чрезмерно. Противоположен по значению префиксу under-:  to heat (нагревать) – to overheat (перегревать)

post имеет значение после:  war (война) – postwar (послевоенный)

preимеет значение до, перед, раньше. Противоположен по значению префиксу post-:  war (война) – prewar (довоенный)

re имеет значение снова, вновь. Нередко соответствует русской приставке пере-:  to collect (собирать) – to recollect (вновь собрать)

EXERCISES

III A-10. Постройте соответствующую форму прилагательных:

1.  I suspect he is not honest. He’s in fact, quite________

2.  This arrangement isn’t strictly legal. Some people would regard it as_____

3.  Sometimes she doesn’t behave in a responsible manner. She’s quite _____

4.  Such a situation is barely imaginable. It’s quite ___________

5.  Bob’s not very capable. Actually he is _______ of making sound decisions.

6.  This fish hasn’t been cooked enough. It’s________

7.  This scheme isn’t very practical, in fact it’s very_________

8.  This dates from the war. It’s _________

III A-11. Постройте существительные, пользуясь суффиксами: -age, – hood, – ation, -ion, – ful, – ence, – ency, – ness, – al, -(er)ly, – ment, – ety, – ism, – ity, – ing

I decided this, This is my_______

Don’t be so anxious. Control your _____

Ann is a socialist, she believes in ______

We all want to be happy. We all seek ______

We all agree. We’re all in _______

Who discovered it? Who made this ____?

We arrive soon. We’ll be met on ____

I was a child then. That was in my ______

She is absent. Can you explain her_____?

I’ll post this. What’s the ______?

Try again. Have another_________

Don’t be so curious, control your_______

Be more efficient, improve your_________

Address this envelope. I’ll give you the _____

I refused their offer. My _______ is final.

I warned you. I gave you enough_______

Put it in your mouth. Take one_______

Can you explain it? Is there any ______?

Don’t argue. I don’t want any ______here.

Module B.

Listening

Education

Read the following summary, then listen to the tape and fill in the gaps.

The idea remains that students are 1) ……………containers which a teacher fills with knowledge. However, this approach no longer works. The teacher’s role is no longer simply to feed information to students. Facts are available in 2) ……………on CD ROMS and on the 3)………… What students need are the 4)…………….to find this information. Cooperative learning encourages 5)……………tolerance and helpfulness towards others. Students work in pairs, in threes and in 6)…………..of four. The teacher is the 7)………not the master. Brett Melville, a pupil, says: “In our class, we have time to discuss issues and 8)………………………….in detail.” Lynne Gedye, a teacher, says: “The children’s response was 9)…………..” Cooperative learning turns the classroom from a competitive arena into a place where learning facts and life skills is 10)…………………and effective.

Reading

You are going to read a text about a new teaching method. Seven sentences have been removed from the article. Choose from the sentences A-H the one which fits each gap (1-6). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Cooperative Kids

The concept of cooperative learning is alien to all of us who were taught the traditional way, but it offers our children the adventure of finding their own answers. Di Lilford reports.

If you took a doctor from the 19th century and put her in. modern operating theatre, she would have no idea that to do, but if you put a teacher from the 19th century into a modern classroom she would be able to tarry on teaching without pause. 0 __ D____ The idea remains that students are empty containers Which the teacher fills with knowledge, and that all students have to do is listen and write.

Education consultant Alyce Miller says: “This approach toes not work in today’s changing world. We are not caching creative problem-solving. We encourage competition, believing that this brings out the best in people.” But this is not so.1____________She goes on to say that the teacher’s role is no longer to feed students with information. “The facts are available in libraries, on CD ROMS and on the Internet. What students need are the skills to find this information, to use and to think creatively in order to solve the problems if our world.”

Miller believes that cooperative learning is the future of education and thinks of it as the best way to encourage responsibility, tolerance and helpfulness towards others. 2____________

In cooperative learning classes, the traditional classroom physical layout is abandoned. 3____________ Pupils learn to work first in pairs, then in threes, and finally in teams of four. Students are required to participate actively in discussing and shaping their own knowledge. The teacher, who is still very important to he process, becomes the helper rather than the master.

Aarnout Brombacher, head of the mathematics department at Westerford High School, says: “The incorrect assumption that many people make about cooperative learning is that it is merely group work. It is much, much more. 4____________With this technique, most of the time in the classroom is

spent teaching them these skills – life skills”

Brett Melville, a 17-year-old pupil at the school, agrees. “You learn the same material as you would using the normal method, but this way you learn how to work with others at the same time. In our class, we are given enough time to discuss issues and problems in detail.” 5____________

One teacher, Lynne Gedye, has been using cooperative learning in her classes for two years. She says, “This year we have several pupils in the class who can hardly speak a word of English. I was tearing my hair out, wondering what to do, but I need not have worried. The children’s response was amazing. 6____________

All in all, it seems that cooperative learning turns the classroom from a competitive arena into a place where learning facts and life skills is both more fun and more effective for pupils and teachers alike.

A. Children do not sit in straight rows of desks facing the teacher, but rather face one another to make it easier to share ideas.

B. The strong ones coached the weak ones endlessly so that they could participate in the question time too.

C. However, she believes that this method is not suitable for all pupils.

D. Teaching methods have hardly changed in one hundred years.

E. She says that good relationships are the key to effective learning.

F. Encouraging children to concentrate on getting the best marks destroys motivation and takes the fun out of learning.

G. He adds that it might take longer than simply listening to the teacher lecture, but the students remember much more afterwards.

H. It recognises the that pupils do not have the skills to work together.

Vocabulary Practice

Look at the words in bold in the text and try to explain them. Fill in the correct word (s) from the list below:

concentrate on

tolerance

participate approach

issues

abandon

merely

motivation

concept

skills

a.  Reading and writing are two of the………………….. which are considered to be most important in life. (learnt abilities)

b.  The Parent-Teacher Association meets month­ly to discuss ……………….concerning the school. (topics)

c.  A very complex subject is best taught using a simple……………….(method)

d.  When reading a text, language learners need to………………………………….. the sentence structure and prepositions, as well as the vocabulary. (pay full attention to)

e.  Teaching a subject in a lively, interesting way increases a student’s……………..to learn. (willingness)

f.  Miss Dean has so much…………. that she can handle even the most difficult of students. (patience)

g.  Many teachers want to…………continual testing and concentrate more on teaching. (stop doing)

h.  If you want to…………. in this game, you must listen to the instructions first. (take part)

i.  Arithmetic is ….…..the introduction to advanced mathematics, but it must be learnt thoroughly. (just)

j.  The…………………………..of formal examinations dates back to ancient China. (idea)

Fill in the correct word’s) from the list below. Use the words only once.

education

to go on

to share

to feed

life

to tear

operating

changing

to solve

to work

mathematics

cooperative

1

…………………..learning

7

………………. ideas

2

………sb with information

8

…………….. in pairs

3

……………….. theatre

9

a(n) ……….. world

4

……………….. skills

10

………. the problems

5

………………consultant

11

………… department

6

…………… to say

12

………… my hair out

Underline the correct item.

1.  A new teacher is joining our English part/department/section this term.

2.  Cookery is a useful subject for girls and boys like/alike/likely.

3.  My brother, who speaks fluent French, coached/studied/practised me in the subject before the exam

4.  The student paused/stopped/ended before answering the question.

5.  Her teaching process/technique/way involves getting to know each student’s needs.

Fill in the correct preposition, then choose any five items and make sentences.

1) alien …….sb; 2) to concentrate ……..sth; 3) to feed sb ……sth; 4) to be responsible ……sth/sb; 5) to share sth …… sb; 6) to be the key ……sth; 7) to participate …….sth; 8) to discuss…… sb; 9) to be important ………sb/sth; 10)……….detail; 11) all … ……all; 12) ……. my own; 13) to be suitable ………sb/sth

Talking Points

1.  Read the text again and make notes under the following headings, then talk about cooperative learning.

students’ role teacher’s role benefits classroom layout

2.  What skills do the pupils gain from cooperative learning? Would you enjoy being taught this way?

 

 

UNIT IV

Module A. Образование вопроса

Сказуемое в вопросительном предложении

В английском вопросительном предложении перед подлежащим стоит глагол. Часто все предложение начинается с этого же глагола.

Если в предложении сказуемое имеет однозначные признаки, то его первый компонент следует поставить перед подлежащим: is, must, has, will и т. д. – Модель 1

Не забудьте, что еще левее, перед компонентом сказуемого, может стоять *wh* — слово: who – кто? what что? какой? why почему? where где? when когда? whose – чей?.

Отрицательная форма сказуемых, образованных по Модели1 образуется с помощью добавления частицы not к первому компоненту, например:

Не cannot speak French fluently. We are not to come so early.

EXERCISES

Модель 1

а) Постройте вопросительные предложения по модели 1. Образуйте отрицательную форму.

IV А-1

He is a good student

My sister is a librarian

She will come here in the evening

IV А-2

I shall visit this exhibition next Sunday

We have invited her to our party

He has invited us to the party

They are dancing the twist

We are singing an English song

She should do this exercise.

That girl can speak English

They ought to stop smoking.

The boy can read in the original.

Those students must go to the dean’s office

These employees must present their passport

She ought to be polite

He should be more attentive.

We were asked to wait.

They were told to attend this lecture

She was introduced to professor Smith.

He will be awarded the prize

Модель 2

Если в сказуемом есть компонент с неоднозначными признаками: -s, – es, то перед подлежащим следует поставить does — Модель 2.

(Смысловой компонент сказуемого такое окончание теперь не имеет).

S

P

O

This interference

affect-s

the experiment badly

Doe-s

this interference

affect —

the experiment badly?

Отрицательная форма сказуемых, образованных по Модели2 образуется с помощью добавления частицы not к does, например: My colleague doesnt (does not) know about it.

EXERCISES

а) Постройте вопросительные предложения по модели 2. b) Образуйте отрицательную форму.

Не plays tennis

She plays basketball

She wants to see this film

This students visit his mother every week

My friends come to see his parents

He likes to go regularly to the cinema

He reads newspaper while having his breakfast

Mary usually writes letters to France late at night

John speak French well

John watches TV every night

Mary usually invites many friends at her home

Edward paints well

Jack loves Julia

Модель 3

Если в состав сказуемого входит компонент с неоднозначным сигнальным признаком – ed (или любой неправильный глагол в Past Simple), то перед подлежащим ставится глагол – did Модель 3. Смысловой компонент будет иметь форму своего инфинитива без частицы – to: Did you borrow books from the library yesterday?

S

P

O

This interference

affect-ed

the experiment badly

Did

this interference

affect —

the experiment badly?

Отрицательная форма сказуемых, образованных по Модели 3 образуется с помощью добавления частицы not к did, например: Students did not take part in this research.

EXERCISES

а) Постройте вопросительное предложение по модели 3. b) Образуйте отрицательную форму.

IV А-5

1.  John wrote a new program.

2.  The program consisted of different commands.

3.  Boolean algebra applied 3 types of statements.

4.  The signal increased voltage.

5.  This book contained 15 chapters.

6.  His mistake resulted in computer breakdown.

IV A-6

Jim produced a new article.

1.  This service consisted of an information and two main parts.

2.  This number equaled 200 divided by 10.

3.  This journal produced sensation.

4.  His report attracted everybody’s attention

Модель 4

Если в состав сказуемого не входил никакой сигнальный признак, как, например, в I play the piano, то перед подлежащим надо поставить глагол Do . Смысловой компонент остается без изменений.

S

P

O

These requirements

affect —

the experiment badly

Do

these requirements

affect —

the experiment badly?

Отрицательная форма сказуемых, образованных по Модели 4 образуется с помощью добавления частицы not к do, например: I do not play the piano.

EXERCISES

а) Постройте вопросительные предложения по модели 4. Образуйте отрицательную форму.

IV А-7

1.  We do much housework.

2.  Our colleagues work in the building next to ours

3.  Children always eat many sweets

4.  Our grandparents live in St. Petersburg

5.  Various reference books give answer to this question

IV A-8. Задайте вопросы к следующим предложениям (общие без wh слов)

1.  We recognize the importance of codifying Ethical principles.

2.  Ethical dilemmas occur when values are in conflict.

3.  We are members of a profession.

4.  We have a special obligation.

5.  Our department organized resources.

6.  They protected each library user’s right

7.  She strives for excellence in the profession.

8.  We will uphold the principles of intellectual freedom.

9.  Librarians should respect the principles of intellectual freedom.

Специальный вопрос к подлежащему

Чтобы задать вопрос к подлежащему, нужно на его место поставить вопросительное слово (who/what etc), сохранив порядок слов в предложении:

S

P

O

This interference

affect-s/-ed

the experiment badly

What

affect-s/-ed

the experiment badly?

What kind of interference

affect-s/-ed

the experiment badly?

Обратите внимание, что вопросительные слова who/what требуют окончания –s у смыслового глагола в настоящем времени.

IV A-9 Задайте специальные вопросы сначала к подлежащему, затем к другим членам предложения.

1.  We recognize the importance of codifying Ethical principles.

2.  Ethical dilemmas occur when values are in conflict.

3.  We are members of a profession.

4.  We have a special obligation.

5.  Our department organized resources.

6.  They protected each library user’s right

7.  She strives for excellence in the profession.

8.  We will uphold the principles of intellectual freedom.

9.  Librarians should respect the principles of intellectual freedom

Module B.

Listening

Entertainment.

Try to match the following theme parks with their special attractions. Then listen to the tape and see if your guesses were correct.

Universal Studios, America

Sentosa, Singapore

Legoland, Denmark

Alton Towers, the Midlands

The Magic Kingdom, Florida

Mickey Mania Parade

Energizer

Jurassic Park

Miniland

Volcanoland

Reading

You are going to read a magazine article about theme parks. For questions 1- 10, choose from the theme parks (A – E). The theme parks may be chosen more than once. There is an example at the beginning (0).

A Universal Studios

C Legoland

E The Magic Kingdom

B Sentosa

D Alton Towers

Which theme park:

opened 3 decades ago?

0

A

do visitors have to purchase food in if they want to eat?

1

has gigantic monsters as one of the main attractions?

2

has exotic flowers on display?

3

has smaller versions of historic monuments?

4

can be reached by several modes of transport?

5

has a breathtaking evening show?

6

can you have fun in even if it rains?

7

is good for young and old people?

8

has one attraction which is ideal for hungry visitors?

9

do visitors pay per ride in?

10

Great themes

By popular request, David Wickers reviews some of the world’s most impressive theme parks in this week’s slot for holiday destinations.

Universal Studios, America’s fourth largest theme park, has enthralled 35,000 people a day since it opened 30 years ago. Its latest attraction, Jurassic Park, is a mira­cle of modern engineering with monsters as tall as five-storey build­ings which come so close that you feel convinced they’re going to step on you. You can also enjoy a boat cruise through a tropical forest, which ends with a 25-metre highspeed plunge into a dark lagoon. Other attractions include Jaws, E. T. and Back to the Future. Tickets cost $34 for adults and $26 for children under twelve.

The Sentosa theme park in Singapore stands on its own island, accessible by boat, cable car or a 700-metre causeway. One of its most spectacular attractions is Volcanoland, which takes you on a simulated journey to the centre of the earth with half-hourly eruptions and earthquakes. Sentosa’s huge aquarium is the largest in Asia, and the gardens, with their 300 varieties of orchid, are a pleasure to wander through. All the rides and attractions are individually priced, ranging from $2 to $4 for adults in addition to the $6 entrance price. Children pay half price.

Legoland is situated near the town of Billund in Denmark, where Lego and Duplo pieces have been made for 64 years. There are two main areas in Legoland. One is Miniland with its miniature models depicting Amsterdam, Copenhagen harbour and an English village, as well as the Taj Mahal, constructed of Lego blocks. The second area contains rides including a sky railway, a mini driving school and an exciting boat ride called Pirateland, all of which are great for kids and, fortunately, are not made of Lego! Admission is about £11 for adults and £10 for children.

Alton Towers in the Midlands is Britain’s most popular theme park. The rides, including the Energizer, Thunderloop and Nemesis will make you scream with excitement and are as good as anything Disneyland can offer. There are 125 attractions, one third of them indoors, permitting fun in all weather. Alton Towers’ unique attraction is the Chocolate Factory; it never runs out of sweets and fizzy drinks. A day pass is £17 for adults and £13 for children aged 4 to 13.

Walt Disney’s Magic Kingdom in Florida is suitable for all ages. It is made up of seven “lands”, each with a different theme and has rides ranging from the petrifying Space Mountain (screams are guaranteed) to the more sedate Jungle Cruise and Haunted Mansion. It’s also a delight to see Mickey Mouse and his friends signing autographs, posing for photographs and even joining visitors for breakfast! The best attractions at the Magic Kingdom are definitely the daily Mickey Mania parade and the evening fireworks show which are not to be missed. There is also a vast choice of snack bars and restaurants as it is Disney’s policy not to allow visitors to bring their own food. The admission price is excellent value for money at $40.81 for adults and $32.86 for children aged 3 to 9.

Vocabulary practice

1.  Look at the words in bold in the text and try to explain them.

2.  Fill in the correct word from the list below:

Policy

destination

petrifying

fizzy enthralled

ranging

plunge

Sedate

admission

accessible

convinced

depicted

a.  After a long journey they eventually reached their…………………(final stop)

b.  The children were…………………………. by the lights and colours at the fireworks show. (fascinated)

c.  In Volcanoland we felt…………………….. that we were really in the centre of the earth. (certain)

d.  The simulated submarine ride began with a 15-metre…………………..to the bottom of the sea. (downwards movement)

e.  The new theme park is by motorway. (possible to be reached)

f.  The disc jockey at this nightclub plays all kinds of music……………………from reggae to rave. (varying)

g.  After eating a lot of chocolate, the children asked for……………………….drinks. (bubbly)

h.  The painting the musician playing his violin. (showed)

i.  You have to pay £3 to get into the museum. (entrance fee)

j.  Some visitors found the visit to the haunted house simply ………………….. . (terrifying)

k.  We decided to go for a(n) ………………………… walk around the gardens after we had been on the roller­coaster. (slow and calm)

l.  Some theme parks have a(n) …………………………not to allow visitors to bring in their own food. (official rule)

3.  Fill in the correct word from the list below. Use the words only once.

to pay

to scream

value

miniature

individually

to pose

cable

tropical

snack

boat

1……………………priced

2………………………..cruise

3…………..forest

4………………..car

5…………………………models

6…………………….with excitement 7……………………….per ride

8……………..for photographs

9…………………………bars

10………………………..for money

4.  Choose the odd word out:

FUNFAIR: ride, big wheel, autograph

CINEMA:screen, snack bar, fireworks

DISCO: dance floor, cable car, video wall

RESTAURANT: stage, fizzy drinks, menu

5.  Fill in the correct preposition, then choose any five items and make sentence

1) ……request; 2) to plunge ……..sth; 3) to be suitable………… sb/sth; 4) a choice …………sth; 5) to be………..display; 6) to be ideal ……… sb/sth; 7) to go ……….a trip; 8) to wander……………..

Talking Points

1.  Read the text again and make notes under the following headings. Then, looking at your notes, describe each theme park.

name location prices special attractions & activities

2.  Which of these theme parks would you like to visit? Why?

 

 

UNIT V

Module A. Анализ сказуемого с точки зрения категории времени и вида (Tense And Aspect)

Сказуемое в английском языке имеет три основных категории:

1. время – Present, Past, Future = настоящее, прошедшее и будущее

2. вид – Continuous, Perfect, Simple = несовершенный (продолженный), совершенный и простой

3. залог – Active, Passive = активный, пассивный

Категория времени(Tense)

В русском языке существуют 3 времени. В английском языке все глаголы в форме сказуемого могут переводиться также настоящим, прошедшим и будущим.

Как определить, каким конкретно временем надо переводить?

Время в английском предложении всегда определяется по 1-му компоненту.

Начнем с прошедшего:

1.  was asked

2.  had had

3.  worked

4.  were being reported

5.  did not answer

6.  wrote

7.  could translate

8.  had to come

Все первые компоненты сказуемых 1,2,4,5,7,8 – это формы прошедшего времени. В 3-м сказуемом – ed это признак прошедшего времени у правильных глаголов. В 6-м сказуемом, состоящем из 1-го компонента, мы определяем по таблице неправильных глаголов (если эта форма совпадает со второй колонкой, значит этот глагол переводится прошедшим временем). Все английские сказуемые в прошедшем времени переводят на русский язык также прошедшим временем. (Каким конкретно видом – см. ниже)

На настоящее время

указывают однозначные сигнальные признаки, такие как: is, am, are, has, have, does, do, а также суффиксы: s, -es, например:

1.  is being done

2.  has worked

3.  am working

4.  have been working

5.  asks

6.  saddle*

7.  are connected

8.  does not open

9.  do not dose

10. light**

* сказуемое без сигнальных признаков мы смотрим по таблице неправильных глаголов. Его там нет, значит, это правильный глагол в настоящем времени ( в прош. +ed).

** это сказуемое мы также смотрим по таблице неправильных глаголов. Оно там есть в первой колонке, значит это – настоящее время. В прошедшем времени этот глагол имеет форму lit (во второй колонке)

Все английские сказуемые в настоящем времени переводятся на русский язык также настоящим, за исключением тех, которые имеют первый компонент have, has. Такие сказуемые, как правило, переводятся глаголом в прошедшем времени при условии если:

— have, has не является единственным глагольным компонентом

— если после него нет частицы to

He has visited me – Он меня навестил

He has to go now – Ему нужно идти

Будущее время

Будущее время определяется по первым однозначным сигнальным признакам, таким как shall, will:

I. shall do

2. will be opened

3. shall have done

4. will not be asking и т. д.

Все английские сказуемые в будущем времени также переводятся на русский язык глаголом в будущем времени (каким конкретно видом – см. ниже).

EXERCISES

Укажите сказуемые в Present

V А-1 V А-2

Укажите сказуемые в Past

V А-3 V A-4

was constructed

am invited

shall be done

began

did not write

saw

was controlled

am provided

shall be provoked

flew

had had

have been built

has had

will see

sees

are published

had done

have been hinged

has seen

will pass

moves

are reduced

wrote

did not support

did not study

gave

works

will go

had translated

was developed

were being constructed

passed

are taken

shall return

did not retract

broke

trains

will fuel

has succeeded

was created

were being equipped

attended

are powered

shall be lifted

Укажите сказуемые в Future

Определите

в каком времени стоят сказуемые

V A-5

V A-6

V A-7

V A-8

a) Во всех карточках, приведенных выше, определите время сказуемого.

b) Найдите: Поет, написал, придет, будет испытан, делаю, читает, смотрим, был произведён, конструирова-лись

conduct

will supply

shall provide

passed

shall have gone

were being asked

will be translated

shall be doing

does not translate

have involved

contain

were being asked

will fuel

will be

shall be moving

supported

shall provide

does not reduce

shall take off

will have been singing

am going

had had

does not work

will be tested

are being done

were being constructed

shall begin

flew

was

bestows

is singing

will come

have a look

Категория аспекта

Определение вида Perfect (совершенного).

Have, has, had всегда указывают на то, что это —совершенный (законченный) вид, если:

1.  этот компонент не является последним компонентом сказуемого

2.  после него не идет частица ‘to’.

3.  этот компонент не является единственным компонентом сказуемого

4.  после него стоит глагол в третьей форме (в соотв. с таблицей неправильных глаголов или с окончанием – ed)

Например:

1.  shall have (-) I shall have breakfast

2.  does not have( -) He doesn’t have time

3.  has (-) Mary has a lot of friends

4.  has not done (+) He has not completed his education yet

5.  were having (-) They were having lunch at that time yesterday

6.  had to do(-) The engeneer had to check the data once again

7.  had been written (+) The program had been written by the time they received the instructions

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ: Сказуемые has had, have had, had had – всегда Perfect

Переводится Perfect на русский язык глаголом совершенного вида:

We have completed our work = Мы закончили (нельзя: Мы заканчивали)

We will have completed our work by 6= мы закончим

EXERCISES

Найдите сказуемое в Perfect

V A-9.

was having

has not done

have been housed

shall do

have to go

will have

has had

had

shall have to take

does not have

had to give

V A-10.

were having

had not attached

have been written

shall have

has been fueled

have to reduce

shall have

has had

had

will pass

does not have

had to call

Определение вида Continuous (несовершенного/продолженного).

Окончание —ing у глагола является признаком несовершенного (продолженного) вида, если этот глагол:

1.  не является 1-ым компонентом

2.  впереди него имеется глагол to be в одной из личных форм

Например:

1.  is being done (+) The program is being written

2.  having completed( -) Having completed his work early he didn’t know what to do.

3.  shall be reading (+) Tommorrow at six I’ll be reading this lecture at History Dep.

4.  being asked (-) He hated being asked

5.  are watching(+) We are watching TV at present

На русский язык переводится обычно глаголом несовершенного вида

I will be translating this article at 5 =Я буду переводить (нельзя: Я переведу)

EXERCISES

Найдите вид Continuous:

V A-ll.

am doing

being answered

were being done

will be writing

having passed

having been read

asking

was having

V A-12.

being stick

were being created

will be flying

having produced

having been reduced

acting

was running

am pressing

Определение вида lndefinite(Simple)(простого неопределенного).

Неопределенный (простой) вид определяется методом отрицания: если нет признаков Perfect или Continuous, значит это Indefinite.

Например:

were doing

took+ (He took my book)

was done + (The research was done unthoroughly )

have been moved

have taken

have + (I have a computer)

Indefinite переводится на русский глаголом несовершенного или совершенного вида.

I go to the University every day = Я хожу в Университет

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ 1: при переводе сказуемых в Present Continuous и Indefinite на русский язык необходимо в первом случае подчеркивать процесс совершения действия, а во втором – регулярность действия.

I visit my friends very often =Я часто навещаю своих друзей

Im visiting my friends = Я сейчас у своих друзей

I go to the University every day = Я хожу в Университет

I am going to the University = Я иду в университет

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ 2: сказуемое в Past Continuous лучше переводить глаголом несовершенного вида, а сказуемое в Past Indefinite – глаголом совершенного вида:

I was visiting my friends yesterday = Я навещал своих друзей

I visited my friends yesterday = Я навестил своих друзей

EXERCISES

V A-14 Выпишите сказуемые только в Indefinite.

shall be doing

has

will come

have been translated

am doing

had had

were having

shall have been written

does not answer

will be going

V A-15. Определите время и вид следующих сказуемых:

will be moving

had

will pass

have been contained

am drinking

has had

were watching

shall have created

does not resist

will be flowing

shall be attached

moved

V A-16.

is designing

had completed

works

shall accomplish

has swept

houses

will attach

am having

will be reading

reported,

has been translated

is passing

shall be reducing

provided

had been retracted

V A-15 Определите аспект и время сказуемых:

was taken, will be taken, had taken, would take, is built, have been built, will have built, built, was being felt, are feeling, will have been felt, were writen, has writen, writes, are being writen, have read, will read, shall have been read, were read, is being seen, am seeing, are seen, saw, had done, will be done, were doing, shall do, make, are being made, made, will have been made, should be going, are gone, goes, has gone, will go, will have left, was left, are leaving, leave, were getting, will be got, has got, am getting. 

V A-16 Переведите сказуемые:

is eating, will eat, was eating, had eaten, shall begin, will have begun, began, shall begin, have blown, were blowing, is blowing, has chosen, will choose, chose,  buys, were buying, were bringing, had brought, has come, came, was coming, will be coming, shall have drawn, has drawn, drew, draws, has found, am finding, have found, knew, will know, gives, gave, is thinking, thought, is keeping

V A-17 Определите сказуемое, его время и аспект, переведите предлжения на русский язык:

1. The most important features specifying the place of articulation of consonants are interior.

2. Chomsky and Halle used the features high/nonhigh and low/nonlow to specify the height of the tongue.

3. The relationship between the two concepts is, however, more complicated.

4. Such widely varying evaluations have influenced different theories concerning the nature of social structure.

5. This phrase expresses the Marxian view that the basic structure of society is economic.

6. In agreement with Jakobson, they had claimed that each feature functions as a binary opposition.

7. For instance, the first segment of the phonological representation of “man” will not include the above-mentioned feature.

8. Linguists are now studying much more intensively than they have in the past the complexities of the interdependence of syntax.

9. Educational psychologists applied themselves to the task of early identification and discovery of talented persons.

10. And in Italy, the Phenomenology circle has centred around Enzo Paci

Module B.

Listening

Places to visit.

Read the following, then listen to the tape and match the numbers with the letters.

1.  old warehouses

A  is the financial district of the capital

2.  The City

B  is a perfect example of a new English cuisine

3.  Many London pubs

C  have been transformed into galleries, shops and clubs

4.  Marco Pierre White’s restaurant

D  has become a meeting place for all kinds of people

5.  King’s Road

E  have been restored to their original Victorian beauty

6.  Soho

F  offers a variety of chainstore clothing at unique boutiques

Reading

You are going to read a magazine article about London. For questions 1- 7, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

The Spirit of London

London often gives the impression of being more comfortable with its past than its present. From the world-famous landmarks of St Paul’s Cathedral, Buckingham Palace and the Tower of London to the traditional and well-loved double-decker buses, the theatres and the many grand hotels, England’s capital offers visitors a journey through centuries of history. This journey is even better now that the building works, which covered many historic sites, have been taken down. Newly cleaned and restored build­ings are revealed, and the city looks as if it has been revitalised.

The city has also rediscovered its river. The area between the South Bank Arts Centre, which includes the National Theatre, and Tower Bridge, has been brought back to life and the city has found a new heart along the forgotten riverside. As you walk eastwards along the river from Westminster, you will discover that old ware­houses have been transformed into galleries, shops and clubs.

Across the river from London Bridge is `The City of London’, the financial district of the capital. The City has its own historic delights such as the 15th century Guildhall and churches designed by Sir Christopher Wren. The best way to explore the City is on foot. For instance, you can “walk through the ages”, starting from Mourner Street and ending at the modern Lloyd’s building on Lime Street. Remember, however, that in London you are never far away from the past; the old-fashioned red telephone boxes are becoming popular again and many London pubs – where a visitor might ask for a pint of bitter – have been restored to their original Victorian beauty.

But the capital is not a historical theme park. It is a lively and exciting metropolis which is well-known for its popular culture, music, clubs, street fashion, and visual arts. Today, many of its wide variety of restaurants claim to be as good as in any other European capitals. For example, Marco Pierre White’s highly re­commended restaurant at the Hyde Park Hotel is a perfect exam­ple of new English cuisine – unusual, sophisticated and extremely expensive. When it comes to shopping, Covent Garden and King’s Road in Chelsea offer a mixture of reasonably priced chainstore clothing and unique boutiques selling everything from rave gear to skateboards. Shoppers with full wallets and more sophisticated tastes should head for Knightsbridge, where Harrods and Harvey Nichols compete to be the most exclusive department store in London.

46

 

Much of London’s energy and originality is now centred in Soho, the city’s liveliest and most bohemian area, squeezed in between the department stores of Oxford Street and the bookshops of Charing Cross Road. Soho, once considered one of the dirtiest and most dangerous parts of London, was cleaned up in the early 1980′s. Today, with its gurgling cappuccino machines and pavement cafes, it has become a meeting place for all kinds of people from all over the world, whatever the hour of day or night.

So, even if you are new to the city, you don’t have to try hard in order to experience the real London. Despite its heavy traffic and shaking underground railway, it is still one of the world’s greatest and most cosmopolitan cities.

1. According to the first paragraph, what is the most outstanding characteristic of London?

A.  the number of hotels

B.  the number of historic sites

C.  the number of landmarks

D.  the number of theatres

2. What has recently happened alongside the river?

A.  The area has been redeveloped.

B.  A new bridge has been built.

C.  New warehouses have been built.

D.  Old warehouses have been torn down.

3. The City of London

A.  was built by Sir Christopher Wren.

B.  is mainly made up of churches.

C.  is a museum of architecture.

D.  contains different styles of architecture.

4. The new English cuisine is

A.  well represented by White’s restaurant.

B.  only available at the Hyde Park Hotel.

C.  available in all London restaurants.

D.  not worth the price the diner is expected to pay.

5. What does the writer think of London’s shopping facilities?

A.  They are too expensive for most people.

B.  They provide for a variety of tastes.

C.  They are all quite reasonably priced.

D.  They don’t have enough customers.

6. Before the 1980′s, Soho was

A.  neat and tidy.

B.  popular among foreigners.

C.  very crowded.

D.  unsafe and unclean.

7. What does “it” in line 46 refer to?

A.  Soho

B.  London

C.  Oxford Street

D.  shopping in London

Vocabulary Practice

1.  Look at the words in bold in the text and try to explain them.

2.  Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below:

explore

head for

experience

transform

revealed

metropolis

claims to be

exclusive

sophisticated

gear

lively

restore

a.  They have finally decided to……. that old building into a museum. (change)

b.  The children couldn’t wait to. the woods behind the hotel. (look around)

c.  Over ten million people live in the of Buenos Aires. (large capital city)

d.  That man…………….. the best tour guide in the city. (says he is)

e.  Susan would love to be able to afford expensive clothes. (modern and elegant)

f.  As it was a hot sunny day we decided to the beach. (go to)

g.  That club is very…… ; only rich people can afford to go there. (restricted to certain people)

h.  Without the correct……. it isn’t safe to go rock climbing. (clothes and equipment)

i.  The work of the archaeologist….. the remains of the lost city. (exposed)

j.  In order to……………… real excitement, try the “Super Shaker” rollercoaster! (become familiar with)

k.  They are planning to…………… the old church. (repair)

l.  London has many……………………………….pubs and clubs. (interesting, exciting)

3.  Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the words only once.

Sophisticated

to give

pavement

department

meeting

historic

cosmopolitan

a pint

gurgling

visual

highly

heavy

grand

reasonably

to bring

full

1 ……. the impression of

2 …… sb/sth back to life

3 ………………. hotels

4 ………………. stores

5 a……………. place

6 ………………of bitter

7 … cappuccino machines

8………………….arts

9 …………recommended

10 ………….sites

11 ……………..traffic

12 ……………….priced

13 ……………………wallets

14 ……………………tastes

15 …………………..cafes

16 …………………………cities

4.  Underline the correct item

a.  On the way to Greece, we (stopped, broke, interrupted, paused) in Hungary for three days.

b.  They went on a two-day (journey, trip, voyage, tour) to Majorca.

c.  The pyramids are of great (antique, ancient, old, historical) importance to archaeologists.

d.  This morning I received a holiday (leaflet, prospectus, handout, brochure) from the travel agent’s.

e.  We dived off our yacht and swam to the (coast, bank, shore, seaside)..

f.  The tourists bought tickets for a(n) (excursion, expedition, sightsee­ing, travel) around the town.

5.  Fill in the correct preposition(s), then choose any five items and make sentences.

1) to be transformed………… sth; 2) to go……foot; 3) to be far………..sth; 4) to ask ………….sth (enquire); 5) to ask……….sth (request); 6) to be well-known sth; 7) to have a variety…………….sth; 8) to be an example…………..sth; 9) to worry sb/sth; 10) to boast……sth; 11) to travel………….plane (but: to be……………….a plane); 12) to travel…………..taxi (but: to be a taxi); 13) to be…… a bike; 14) to provide……..sth

Talking Points

1.  Read the text again and make notes about the changes which have been made to the following places in London, then talk about them.

historic sites along the river the pubs soho

2.  Is London similar to or different from your capital city?

3. 

 

What could a tourist see in your capital city?

UNIT VI

Module A. Анализ сказуемого с точки зрения категории залога (Voice)

В английском языке, как и в русском, существуют 2 типа залога: Active (активный) и Passive (пассивный) Voice(Залог) – отношение между подлежащим и дополнением в предложении. Эта взаимообусловленная связь выражается с помощью сказуемого.

Как определить какой залог будет иметь сказуемое?

Если подлежащее является непосредственным исполнителем действия и это действие направлено на дополнение, то сказуемое будет иметь активный залог (Active Voice).

I read the book. Я читаю книгу.

Если же непосредственным исполнителем действия является дополнение и действие направлено на подлежащее, то сказуемое будет иметь пассивный залог (Passive Voice).

The book is read by me. Книга читается мной

Если мы используем пассивный залог, то нас может не интересовать производитель совершаемого действия, поэтому дополнение с предлогом ‘by опускается.

The test is being conducted. Испытание проводится.

В предложении с Passive Voice, подлежащим может становиться как прямое, так и косвенное дополнение.

S

P

O(dir)

O(ind)

They

gave

the book

to me

The book

was given

to me (by them)

I

was given

the book

(by them)

Существует 3 способа перевода Passive Voice на русский язык; с помощью:

1) глагола ‘быть’ в прошедшем или будущем времени + краткое страдательное причастие

It was done = Это было сделано

2) возвратного глагола (-ся /-сь)

The work is being done =Работа делается

3) неопределенно-личного предложения (из двух главных членов есть только сказуемое, которое всегда стоит в 3 л.-мн. числа)

The experiment is conducted = Эксперимент проводят

EXERCISES

Переведите всеми возможными способами:

1. Students were given dictionaries.

2. This article is being translated.

3. A 12-story building was being constructed on the square.

4. An interesting problem will be discussed at the conference.

5. The journal has been printed.

6. Data are being programmed.

Как распознать Passive Voice?

Для этого необходимо два условия:

1) чтобы в состав сказуемого входил глагол to be в любой форме:

(to)be, am, is, are, was, were, been

2) последний компонент сказуемого был бы в 3-й форме или с окончанием —ed

is doing —

must create —

had been read+

am done+

is to be —

was to come*-

* Смотрим такой глагол по таблице неправильных глаголов. Если у него совпадают 1 и 3 формы то в Passive Voice после частицы to должен быть глагол be: was to cut-,

was to be cut+

EXERCISES

VI A-l. Укажите Passive или Active

have worked —

are to write

were asked

will be revised

is being connected

was computing

have been done

will have been doing

has done

were produced

is being read

are to come

had been developed

was being translated

had opened

am invited

is to send

has been done

VI A-2. Определите время (Tense), вид (Aspect), залог (Voice).

will have seen

was sung

am being watched

is to see

had been opened

is being occupied

had crashed

is told

am to decide

will have been developed

had to come is read

is being reported

have

has been carried out

were

has had

had done

had been done

will correspond

will be translated

speaks

am reading

was being completed

VI A-3. Выпишите из VI А-2 все сказуемые в Passive. Оределите, какое одно из нижепреведённых подлежащих подходит к этим сказуемым:

results/research/ researcher (пример: Researcher speaks – Исследователь говорит)

VI А-4. Переведите на английский язык всеми возможными способами:

Статья переводится

Статью переведут

Статья будет переводиться

Статья была переведена

Статья переводилась

Особенности Passive Voice

В русском языке страдательный залог образуют только переходные глаголы, т. е. прямое дополнение становится подлежащим в таком предложении. В английском языке страдательный залог образуют не только такие глаголы, но также и глаголы, после которых следует дополнение с предлогом:

The monitor was sent for (to sent for a monitor). За старостой послали.

The results were often referred to (to refer to results). На эти результаты часто ссылались.

The children are taken care of (to take care of children). О детях заботятся.

Каков алгоритм перевода?

S

P

1

The research

has been much spoken

about

2

They

have spoken

about

the research

3

Они

говорили

об

исследовании

4

Говорили

об

исследовании

5

Об исследовании говорили

Иногда в русском языке глагол требует дополнение с предлогом, а в английском – нет:

This question was answered immediately. На этот вопрос ответили немедленно.

EXERCISES

VI А-5. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.  This phenomenon will be spoken about.

2.  The reliability of this method will be insisted upon.

3.  The excursion to exhibition was insisted on by many students.

4.  He is taken care of by his sister.

5.  The theory of relativity is referred to later

6.  The article was spoken about by many reporters.

7.  Many substances can be destroyed when they are acted upon.

8.  Probably the decision will be arrived at after much discussion.

9. The book is thought of as most interesting.

10.  She may be relied on in a situation like this.

11.  This opinion should be relied on.

12.  The experiment was watched by many students.

13.  We were joined by a large group of tourists.

14.  This discovery was followed by another one.

15.  The neutron is completely unaffected by a magnetic field.

16.  The behavior of this particle is influencet by various factors.

VI A-6. Определите Tense, Aspect, Voice. Переведите на русский язык.

is produced.

produces

will have been produced

is producing

The program

has produced

has been produced

had been produced

is being produced

produced

VI A-7. Образуйте от глагола to ask подобную “цепочку” сказуемых к подлежащему student. Переведите на русский язык полученные пары S+PR.

VI А-8 Переведите на русский язык

was reflected, shall be done, began, did not develop, saw, have been distinguished, has had, will see, determines, are published, was recognized, am provided, shall be extended, wrote, did not move, to expose, had done, have been mentioned, has seen, will begin, moves, are examined, did not enter, containts, had exposed, were being extended, are taken, enters, will occur, was estimated, approved, shall develop, did not begin, exists, has separated, were being modified, are studied, preferred, will vary, was observed, increased, shall be taken, to depend on, will believe, shall prove, developed, shall have recognized, were being asked, will be determined, shall be doing, does not deal, have thought, contain, will catch, shall grow, entered, shall move, were being asked, will be exposed, shall be moving, does not observe, does not depend, were being modified, wrote, reads, will come, will be tested, shall begin, was inhabited, is examining, was having, have been housed, has been done, will have, had, does not have, has not done, shall do, have to do, has had, shall take, had to give, were having, have been observed, has been modified, shall expose, moved, does not have, had not examined, shall depend, have to be observed, has begun, will be recognized, had to mention

Module B.

Listening

Festivals/celebrations

Read the sentences, then listen to the tape and fill in the missing information

A. The Rio Carnival takes place before the……………..of Lent

B. Oktoberfest begins in…………………..

C. The Fallas Fiesta is a(n)……………………….event celebrating the end of the winter.

D. The Tibetan Butter Lamp Festival demonstrates the idea that not even the most beautiful things …………………………..for ever.

E. The Dragon Boat Festival honours the memory of a politician and…….., Qu Xuan.

Reading

You are going to read some information about some festival! For questions 1 – 10, choose from the festivals (A-E). Some of the festivals may be chosen more than once. When more than one answer is required, these may be given in any order. There is an example at the beginning (1).

Which festival(s):

marks the death of a particular person?

1.   

E

gives people a large variety to choose from?

2.   

are meant to remind people of something?

3.   

involve a competition?

4.   

makes unusual use of a food?

5.   

now takes place in a building?

6.   

marks the beginning of a season?

7.   

marks the beginning of a religious period?

8.   

probably dates back longer than was previously thought?

9.   

involve dressing up in special costumes?

10.   

The Festive Year

A. Rio Carnival in Brazil

A

This festival is by far the largest in the world. Hundreds of thousands of visitors come every year for the celebrations before the start of Lent, (a fasting period of forty days before Easter). The carnival takes place in the Sambadrome, a huge new stadium. There, samba schools compete with each other for the best costumes and dancing. They spend a lot of time and money on carnival preparations, making fantastic costumes, masks, decorations, mobile floats and teaching the samba. In the past, the carnival procession was held in the streets of Rio, where beauti­fully clothed people threw streamers and confetti and danced for four days. Nowadays, the world’s biggest street party has become a pleasure only for those who can afford the entrance fee.

B. Oktoberfest

B

Foreign beer-lovers might think that the Germans are unimaginative when it comes to beer because, good as it is, it all seems to taste very similar. There are, howev­er, many regional and seasonal differences, particular­ly in Bavaria and Munich. Oktoberfest, the world’s largest beer festival, actually begins in September and, to mark the occasion, each of Munich’s many breweries makes a special beer. Because of this, an astonishing variety of different types and strengths of beer are available at this festival.

C. The Fallas Festival

C

The most spectacular of Spain’s thousands of festivals must be Valencia’s Fallas Fiesta, a two-day event cele­brating the end of winter. The Fallas Fiesta and street party start at noon on St. Joseph’s Day, 19th March, with a deafening explosion of fireworks. Then there are con­tests for the best paella – a traditional Valencian rice dish. People gather (n the streets to admire the costumes of the men dressed up as the Moors who occupied the city until the 13th century. In the months before the fiesta, crafts­men create around 370 papier mache sculptures, the fal­las, which are detailed caricatures of local people. At midnight, when the fallas are burnt, the burst of flames and fireworks symbolically forces out the winter.

D. The Tibetan Butter Lamp Festival

D

Buddhists believe that nothing is permanent, and on the 9th of March they celebrate this belief. Long before the festival begins, monks make their preparations by mixing brightly-coloured dyes into huge quantities of iced butter. It takes them several months to carve the frozen butter into highly decorated statues, some of them as much as 8 metres high. On the day of the festival itself, the sculptures – supported by wooden frames are carried through the streets and greeted with cheers from the excited crowds. Afterwards, the figures are thrown into a river by the monks who made them to demonstrate the idea that not even the most beautiful things last forever.

E. The Dragon Boat Festival

E

In China, towards the end of June, people celebrate a holiday known as the Dragon Boat Festival. The festival is held to honour the memory of Qu Xuan, a politician and poet who, in the year 278 B. C., is said to have commit­ted suicide – by jumping into a river. It is said that local people threw rice dumplings into the water to save Xuan’s soul from the evil spirits in the river. Nowadays, boat races are held every year to remind people of the search for the body of the dead poet. Spectators eat rice cakes and crews row large dragon-shaped boats. Some researchers, however, say that dragon boats existed long before the death of Qu Xuan, and the modern festival is a combination of several old traditions.

Vocabulary Practice

1.  Look at the words in bold in the text and try to explain them.

2.  Fill in the correct word from the list below:

regional

souls

occupied

available

contest

carve

afford

sculpture

supported

dyes

permanent

a.  Many African tribes masks to wear during particular celebrations. (shape out of wood)

b.  Many religions have holidays which honour the …………………of the dead. (spirits)

c.  The tickets for the jazz festival were so expensive that we couldn’t ……………. to go. (pay for sth)

d.  The huge ice castle which was made for the winter carnival was…………….. by a wooden framework. (helped to stand up)

e.  In Britain, there are many differences in the way people speak. (local)

f.  The performers used blue, red and yellow to change their hair colour for the festival. (colours)

g.  To celebrate the harvest, the town’s largest bakery held a(n) ……………..for the best apple pie. (competition)

h.  The artist’s…………… won first prize in the city’s art festival. (carving)

i.  They built a monument as a(n) reminder of the soldiers who died in the war. (lasting forever)

j.  All sorts of food are… . at our local spring festival. (obtainable)

k.  The city was …………….for months by the enemy. (conquered and held)

3.  Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the words only once.

street

evil

to make

to mark

to honour

to greet

beautifully clothed

deafening

to commit

boat

by far

entrance

1

2

3

4

5

6

………. the occasion

the……. procession

…………….. people

…………. the largest

….. the memory of sb

…………………. fee

7

8

9

10

11

12

…………….. suicide

………………. spirits

………………. races

a(n) …….. explosion

……….. preparations

………… with cheers

4.  Underline the correct word.

1.  Their traditional suits/costumes are covered with beautiful embroidery.

2.  The religious procession/process made its way through the narrow streets of the town.

3.  The crowd composed/gathered to watch the acrobat perform.

4.  I’ll always remind/remember their beautiful wedding.

5.  Let’s meet at the entry/entrance of the concert hall.

5.  Fill in the correct preposition, then choose any five items and make sentences.

1) to throw sth …….sb (in order to catch); 2) to throw sth ……sb (in order to hit); 3) to remind sb ……….sth; 4) to search..sth; 5) a combination ………..sth; 6) to combine sth ……………sth else 7) …………..September; 8) ……….noon; 9) the streets; 10) ……midnight; 11) …………9th March; 12) to compete …………..sb

Talking Points

Using the following headings, make notes about each of the festivals. Then tell your partner about one of them. Start like this: The … festival takes place on… in … . It is held to…

date location reason activities

 

 

UNIT VII

Module A. Анализ сказуемого с точки зрения наклонения. (Mood)

В английском языке (как и в русском) сказуемое имеет такую характеристику, как наклонение. Существуют 3 вида наклонения: изъявительное, повелительное и сослагательное. Соответственно: indicative, imperative, subjunctive.

Повелительное наклонение (Imperative Mood)

Все, что мы с вами изучали до настоящего момента, относилось к indicative Mood.

Что же такое Imperative Mood?

В повелительном (Imperative Mood) наклонении сказуемое выражает не действие или состояние, а:

призыв к действию;

просьбу;

приказ;

совет и т д.

Это – единственный случай, когда в английском предложении отсутствует подлежащее; у глагола нет соотнесенности с определенным временем, т. е. к Present, Past и Future (как в Indicative Mood).

We often go to the park for a walk.///Park the car in the street.

They write the program in DELPHI.///Write the program in DELPHI.

Отсутствие Subject в английском языке – это признак imperative.

Повелительное наклонение может быть и в отрицательной форме:

Don’t take this book from the shelf. Dont be so stupid.

Иногда предложения в повелительном наклонении начинаются с предлога:

Before that, change the cartridge.

For an answer, get in touch with this Web site.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ: Особенно часто Imperative Mood употребляется в различных инструкциях, руководствах к эксплуатации и т. д. Например:

Press button № 3 first Нажмите сначала кнопку №3

EXERCISES

Найдите примеры в Imperative Mood и переведите их на русский язык

VII А-1.

VII А-2

The table is big and round.

Table these figures

Cleaning tables is also his duty

Don’t splash water around the wash-basin.

Splashing water he rushed to the shore

We don’t splash water when we wash ourselves

Splashes got everywhere.

Please, stop the tape-recorder.

Stops on the road are not numerous.

When listening to the tape don’t stop to take notes.

First, apologize for the mess you have made

First, he apologised for the mess.

Apologies were taken wrong

Better mind your own business

Better your results

The better you do it the sooner you get home

Better don’t do it now

Better you do it first!

Therefore, for a check, open your text-book on page 127.

Having been misused the check was to be put to the cutter.

Check on this exersise now.

Get dressed quickly.

Whatever you get for it get it at once.

It’s not as easy as it gets.

Иногда предложение в повелительном наклонении начинается с глагола let, который переводится на русский язык, как ‘Давайте’, ‘Пусть”, ‘Позвольте” :

Lets start with Web site dealing with our library – Давайте начнём с Web сайта, относящегося к нашей библиотеке.

VII А-3. Переведите данные примеры в Imperative на русский язык.

1.  Let us (let’s) speak English

2.  Let John do it!

3.  Let him come

4.  Let them translate the text

5.  Don’t let them come!

6.  Let her take it!

7.  Don’t measure this value

8.  Let Mary bring the book.

9.  Please, put down your address

10. Let’s have some coffee.

11. Don’t let him interfere you

Сослагательное наклонение (Subjunctive Mood)

Показывает, что говорящий рассматривает действие не как реальный факт, а как желательное, предполагаемое, условное или возможное.

В русском языке для выражения сослагательного наклонения употребляется форма глагола в прошедшем времени с частицей бы или придаточное предложение с союзом чтобы.

Каковы сигнальные призники сослагательного наклонения?

·  глагол be в форме инфинитива без частицы to или were на месте сказуемого (I were, He be)

·  отсутствие окончания – s у глаголов после существительных и местоимений третьего лица (He write)

·  наличие компонентов should, would, could

·  модальные глаголы might, ought to, need с последующим have

Сослагательное наклонение может выражать действие, относящееся к любому времени, при условии, что оно не предшествует моменту речи.

I would do it today. Я бы сделал это сегодня

В этом случае используются формы, перечисленные выше.

Для выражения прошедшего действия, предшествующие моменту речи используются перфектные формы инфинитива.

I should have done it yesterday, but I was busy. Мне бы следовало это сделать вчера, но я был занят.

Сигнальные признаки subjunctive:

Соотносящие действие с настоящим или будущим временем

Соотносящие действие с прошедшим временем

1-й или единственный компонент

1-й компонент

1-й компонент

be*

would

would

do

might

might

+have+

were**

ought to

ought to

3-я форма

did

could

could

глагола

2-я форма любого глагола

should

should

1-я форма любого глагола

work, write***

had(been)+ 3-я форма глагола

Примечания:

* – всегда однозначный признак

** – является однозначным, если подлежащее стоит в единственном числе или весь контекст относится к настоящему времени или будущему

***является однозначным признаком, если подлежащее стоит в 3 л. ед. числа – he, she, it

EXERCISES

VII A-4 Укажите сказуемые, которые имеют однозначные сигнальные признаки настоящего или будущего времени Subjunctive Mood

is speaking

would have informed

had spoken

could inform

could speak

we

are informed

He

be spoken

informed

speaks

will be informed

was spoken

might speak

were spoken

VII A-5. Укажите сказуемые, которые имеют сигнальные признаки прошедшего времени Subjunctive Mood.

could have said

would address

will say

should have addressed

had said

should address

She

say

They

didn’t address

were said

have addressed

said

be addressed

were said

might have addressed

ought to have said

VII A-6. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Поясните, к какому времени относится действие, выраженное сказуемым в Subjunctive Mood.

1. He suggested that these data be included.

2. He considers that these data could be included.

3. He thought that this data should be included.

4. I wish you did this task.

5. I wish you had done this task.

6. We would be glad to see you.

7. She might have come on time.

Все вышеупомянутые сигнальные признаки Subjunctive Mood являются однозначными, если они употребляются в сочетании. Обычно это происходит в придаточных предложениях условия.

If it were a professional librarian, document characteristics would be identified very quickly. Если бы это был профессиональный библиотекарь, то характеристики этого документа определили бы очень быстро (действие относится к настоящему или будущему времени – условие ещё выполнимое)

If it had been a professional librarian, document characteristics would have been identified very quickly. Действие относится к прошлому, условие уже не выполнимо. На русский язык это предложение переводится точно так же.

VII А-7. Переведите предложения на русский язык:

1.  If indexing systems collected this information, metadata could be attached to files.

2.  It is essential that this site include a map or a table.

3.  He wishes that this site be visited once more.

4.  Our library would be glad to have its own site on the Web.

5.  Provided Web crawler had found the desired article we would have had proper bibliographic reference.

6.  Web crawler could have examined information in a proper way in case its structure hadn’t changed.

7.  We proposed a Metadata elements should be simpler.

8.  If the author was alive today he would be now a hundred years old!

9.  If you were making some text analysis which method would you prefer to use?

10.  Had I known this fact before, I would not have made this mistake.

Использование сослагательного наклонения

1. В простых предложениях:

— пожелания:

Long live the Queen! Да здравствует королева!

If only it were possible! Если бы только это было возможным!

— отдельные выражения:

Be it so! Да будет так!

Suffice it to say that… Достаточно сказать, что…

Far be it from me to contradict you У меня и в мыслях нет вам противоречить.

2. В сложных предложениях:

— с нереальным условием, относящихся к настоящему или будущему времени

The world would be healthier if every chemist’s shop in England were demolished

Человечество было бы здоровее, если бы все аптеки в Англии были уничтожены

— с нереальным условием, относящихся к прошедшему времени

If you had checked the results properly at that point of your research you would not have found yourself in such awkward situation at yesterday’s conference

Если бы ты тщательно проверил результаты на том этапе исследования, ты бы не попал в такую неловкую ситуацию, как на вчерашней конференции

— с нереальным условием смешанного типа

If you had checked the results properly at that point of your research you wouldn’t have to rewrite it all now (it would be almost ready now)

Если бы ты тщательно проверил результаты на том этапе исследования, тебе не пришлось бы сейчас все переписывать.(все было бы теперь почти готово)

в обстоятельственных придаточных предложениях могут быть использованы союзы: if, in case, provided, suppose, unless, —

Suppose these data were collected without any technologies applied, would it be possible to check them properly?

Предположим, эти данные были бы собраны без применения технологий, возможно ли было бы их проверить надлежащим образом?

It could be done provided he consented to conduct this experiment

Это можно было бы сделать при условии, что он согласился бы провести этот эксперимент.

— с инверсионным порядком слов при использовании had, were, could, should

Had it remained unchanged, we wouldn’t have to alter it now = If it had remained…

Should it come this way, I will be ready to give it up = If it comes this way..

This file could be easily transferred were it not that corrupted = …if it were not that corrupted

— с обстоятельственными придаточными цели, уступки, времени и места

He opened the lab door quietly so that he might not disturb them – Он тихонько открыл дверь в лабораторию, чтобы их не потревожить

Whatever obstacles may arise we shall not give in Какие бы препятствия ни встали на нашем пути, они нас не остановят

— с придаточными в роли дополнения

I wished I had done it more thoroughlyЖаль, что я не сделал это как следует

He wishes you would stay away from it – Он бы хотел, чтобы вы держались от этого подальше

She fears lest she should be blamed – она боится, как бы ее не осудили

He ordered that everything should be done on time – Он приказал, чтобы все было готово вовремя

The people demand that the resignation be accepted – Народ требует, чтобы отставка была принята

— с придаточными в роли определения

It is time we prepared a report – Нам пора приготовить доклад

EXERCISES

VII A-8. Переведите предложения на русский язык

1.  Oh, if only you were as you used to be.

2.  I wish you would turn the radio down.

3.  It’s desirable that the issue should be settled as soon as possible.

4.  He asked me to stay with him so that he could read his condlusions to me when they were finished.

5.  He feared that after twenty years he would not find his way to that deserted place

6.  We knew very well what the reason was, but wanted to act as though we had no idea of it.

7.  He insisted that people in plays should talk as they talked in real life.

8.  I wish I had seen more of them before the war.

9.  Now if I got this programmer sacked, this of course would mean telling everybody what he did.

10.  “I’m afraid I can’t stay,” I said. “If I stayed I would have to tell things that they would not like and that could spoil their fun.”

11.  It was agreed that Paul would meet the delegation at the station so that he would show them their apartments.

12.  I would not tell you anything even if I could remember the facts.

13.  It would help if you let me know what you saw.

14.  I know I’ve broken your plans. And you might have been so successful with it.

15.  He was afraid that he would forget the title of the article and asked me to put it down for him.

16.  He was not well off and he went about in dread lest he should be

17.  I wish I had a lot of money. I would not live another day in here.

18.  In my reply to Miss Evans I suggested that she should arrive at my office on Monday.

19.  Edward proposed that he fetched Bates at five so that they would drive out together to Jack’s house.

20.  It would make small difference to the universe if I never existed.

21.  There were moments when she wished she had never started that talk.

Module B.

Listening

Disasters and accidents

Read the text below and try to guess the correct answers. Then listen to the tape and check if your guesses were correct.

A massive earthquake occurred on January 17, 1) 1994/1984 in Los Angeles. The quake killed 2) 76/60 people and caused $20 3) billion/million worth of damage. The cause of the earth quake was movement in the San Andreas fault system. The fault is a 4) crack/hole between two huge pieces of the Earth’s crust. One of these pieces is under the 5) Atlantic/Pacific Ocean.

If an earthquake does occur, authorities advise people to stay 6) calm/still. Being in a quake is a(n) 7) traumatic/exciting experience. Psychologists say that some people are 8) scared/excited all the time after experiencing an earthquake, while others try to persuade themselves that it 9) will/won’t happen again. Unfortunately there is a 10) 90%/19% chance of at least one more earthquake happening in California in the next thirty years.

Reading

You are going to read a magazine article about earthquakes. Six paragraphs have been removed from the article. Choose from the paragraphs A – G the one which fits each gap (1-5). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Earthquake in l. a

At 4.31 in the morning on January 17, 1994, the full impact of a massive earthquake measuring 6.7 on the Richter scale hit the community of Northridge in Los Angeles. It was an unwelcome wake-up call for everyone in the city.

One resident, Rosemary Sato, was shaken awake in her bed to the sound of tremors violently rocking her house. When she got up she found that the quake had blown open her front door and thrown her furniture around like toys.

0_____________E___________________

However, the damage wasn’t restricted to Northridge. Across the city the quake killed sixty people, destroyed or severely damaged more than 3,000 homes, and brought down ten highway bridges. Many people were trapped under debris. The cost of the damage was estimated to be $20 billion. The cause of this quake was movement in the San Andreas fault system. The fault is a crack between two giant pieces of the Earth’s crust. One of these pieces, most of which is situated under the Pacific Ocean, is moving at an average of about four centimetres every year.

1_________________________________

The good news is that the Californian authorities are taking these predictions seriously. Engineers are working to strengthen the steel frames of buildings and other structures such as bridges. Hopefully, this will lead to less structural damage during the next quake.

2_________________________________

During a quake it is important to stay calm, as panic leads to rash actions which may result in injury or even death.

3_________________________________

Levon Jernazian, a clinical psychologist, helps people to deal with the effects of this trauma. For weeks after the Northridge quake, one of his patients, Ani Shakhverdyan, aged eight, would still cling to her parents, was terrified of the dark and would not even go to the bathroom alone.

4_________________________________

Other survivors of quakes deal with their fears in a different way. They tell themselves that it won’t happen again.

5_________________________________

Little does she realise that in California, with the chances of anoth­er severe quake at 90 per cent in the next thirty years, she is very likely to experience at least one more.

A

In one session, Ani was asked to draw a picture of her fears. She drew a big rat. Then Levon Jernazian told her to cut the picture of the rat into pieces, bum it, and then jump on the remains. Ani did what he suggested and her fears became less intense.

B

Unfortunately, this movement isn’t slow and continuous, but occurs In bursts, which result in earthquakes. And to make matters worse, scientists not only expect more earthquakes in the near future, but also more powerful ones.

C

People are advised to stay where they are and, if possible, to take shelter under a bed or table. However, for many it is difficult to get rid of the terror of experiencing an earthquake. After the Northridge quake, thousands of Californians even left the state, and many of those who stayed have experienced what Is now known as “earthquake trauma”.

D

One woman’s reaction was, “I’m not scared anymore. Also, it’s similar to being in a plane crash. What are your chances of being in another?]”

E

Another resident of the community, who lived in a three-storey apartment block, recalls the top two floors of the building crashing down onto his first-floor apartment. “A wall fell on me,” he said, “I couldn’t move my head. 1 was trapped for five hours with Injuries to my lungs, ribs, and collar-bone.”

F

Amazingly enough, nobody noticed it apart from scientists who were studying the seismic activity. However, one man did report that his dog had started to howl at the time the quake was said to have started.

G

The residents of California are also preparing themselves for the next big one. They are buying emergency supplies, nailing down their belongings and making plans for what they should do in the event of another quake.

Vocabulary Practice

1.  Look at the words in bold in the text and try to explain them.

2.  Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below:

impact

howling

rocked

intense

restricted

estimated

strengthened

recalled

survivors of

cling

a. The………………..heat from the blazing house made it difficult for the fire-fighters to advance. (extreme)

b. The buildings closest to the bomb…………………violently when it exploded, (shook)

c. Because John was wearing protective clothing, his injuries were to his arms and legs. (limited)

d. You could hear dogs…………………just before the earthquake started. (crying)

e. You exact number of dead people is unknown, but the figure is…………..to be 400. (roughly guessed)

f.  The earthquake experts insist that all buildings should be ……….with steel rods. (made stronger)

g. The …………the plane crash were rushed to the hospital by helicopter. (people who didn’t die in)

h. When the earthquake struck, Susan ran to………………….to her mother for comfort. (hold on tightly)

i.  “The full…………..of the nuclear explosion is not yet known,” said the reporter. (effect)

j.  The police asked Claire if she…………..ever having seen the man before. (remembered)

3. Fill in the correct word(s) from the list below. Use the words only once.

steel

seismic

to take

shelter

massive

to make

to blow

crust

wake-up

front

to stay

plane

1. a……….….…..earthquake

2. .………sth seriously

3. …………….matters worse

4. the Earth’s……..………….

5. to take………..…under sth

6. …a…………………….call

7. ……………….………frames

8. a ……………….………crash

9. ………………….…..sth open

10. the………………………door

11. ………………………….calm

12. ……………………….activity

4.  Find the odd word out.

1.  notice, observe, watch, think

2.  terrified, scared, thrilled, horrified

3.  big, enormous, huge, tiny

4.  effect, consequence, cause, result

5.  Fill in the correct preposition, then choose any four items and make sentences.

1) to be restricted…………..an area; 2) to lead…………….sth; 3) to result …………..sth; 4) to deal………………..sb/sth; 5) to cling…………….sb; 6) to be ………….terrified sth; 7) to get rid………..sth.

Talking Points

1.  Read the whole text again and make notes under the following headings, then report the incident.

what – when – where – details of the event – people involved – action taken –comments by those affected

2.  How can we protect ourselves against earthquakes before or while they are happening?!

 

 

UNIT VIII

Module A. Анализ сказуемого с модальным глаголом

В английском языке существует группа глаголов, отличающихся от всех остальных, как по формальным характеристикам, так и по сути. Эти глаголы называются модальными (Modal Verbs) и их особенности заключаются в том, что:

1) Они не обозначают действие или состояние как все другие глаголы, а нечто совершенно другое: разрешение, моральный и прочий долг, умственную способность и т. д. (см. конкретный глагол).

2) Они не имеют формы инфинитива и всех временных форм (для восполнения недостающего времени используется соответствующий эквивалент модального глагола).

3) Для образования отрицательных или вопросительных форм им не нужен вспомогательный глагол.

4) После них инфинитив другого глагола употребляется без частицы to

Must – должен, надо или возможно, должно быть;

Everybody must do it. Everybody must be given it. He must have answered all questions.

Эквиваленты mustto have – употребляется в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем времени, to be to – в настоящем и прошедшем времени

everybody had to do it

has to do it

will have to do it

is to do it

was to do it

В отрицательной форме must употребляется ограниченно.

На вопрос Must he do it? отрицательной форме надо ответить No, he neednt

Must осознаваемое говорящим внутреннее долженствование,

To have to – долженствование с оттенком вынужденности, внешних обстоятельств,

То be to – долженствование вследствие договорённости, по расписанию и т. д.

Сравните:

I must leave now – I’m visiting my friend who is at hospital.

I have to leave now – my boss is waiting for me to print the documents.

I am to leave the office at 5 p. m. and not earlier.

Can ( наст. вр) – могу; could (прош. вр) – мог бы (физическая или умственная способность, разрешение)

Students can translate this text without a dictionary – ( Students can’t translate this text without a dictionary.)

Can I take this postcard?

We could find this site on the Web. I could have completed my report yesterday.

Эквивалентcanto be able to употребляется во всех трёх временах, но имеет несколько другое значение:

I can do this work but now I am not able to.

He could swim when he was 7. He was not able to swim because of his broken leg.

В будущем времени употребляется только to be able to:

Next week we will be able to go hiking.

May (наст. вр. ) может – might (наст. вр. ) – мог, (разрешение, предположение)

We may be late for the lesson.

Форма might употребляется только в косвенной речи в значении разрешения; в других случаях might означает предположительное действие.

Сравните:

We might get in touch with them quickly. Мы могли бы соединится с ними быстро.

He asked if he might come the next day. Он спросил, можно ли ему прийти на следующий день.

Эквивалент mayto be allowed to употребляется во всеx трех временах. В прошедшем и будущем он обозначает только разрешение, в отличие от may, означающего кроме разрешения в настоящем возможность совершения действия. Форма might используется для выражения сослагательного наклонения и значения “должно быть”.

He may come – Возможно, он придет

Tell him, he may come – Скажи ему, что он может придти(я разрешаю ему)

He is allowed to come – Ему разрешается придти

He was allowed to come – Ему было разрешено придти

He will be allowed to come – Ему разрешат придти

He might come – Он, возможно, придет (он бы пришел)

He might have come – Он, возможно, уже приходил.

should следует, ought to – должен

Обратите внимание, что ought to – единственный модальный глагол, после которого инфинитив глагола употребляется с частицей to.

This device ought to be repaired.

Известно, что глаголы to be, to have являются многофункциональными. Как определить в каком сказуемом они – эквиваленты модального глагола? Если после to be, to have (в любом времени) следует инфинитив другого глагола с частицей to, то в таком случае имеет значение долженствования, т. е. они заменяют глагол must.

ПРИМЕЧАНИЕ: Данное правило не относится к глаголу – эквиваленту to be, если подлежащим в предложении являются слова типа: task, problem, aim, etc. в таком случае to be является глаголом связкой и может вообще не переводиться на русский язык

Our task is to get the best characteristic.

EXERCISES

VIII A-1. Определите, какие сказуемые имеют в составе эквиваленты модального глагола must

had worked out

has to be worked out

am reading

was to read

will have to produce

has to tell

are producing

will have read

had to come

am to be given

VIII A-3. В данных предложениях выделите сказуемoe: поясните их значение:

1.We shall have to work out an experiment in which we shall be able to keep the particles in plasma.

2. You ought to know that the term equilibria applies equally well to many physical phenomena.

3. We are to consider all advantages аnd disadvantages of this proposal.

4. They had to resort to more rigid terms.

5. Engineers may take certain steps to reduce tension.

6. We can take into consideration the law of conservation of energy.

7. He is to graduate from the University with Honours.

VIII A-4. Определите залог сказуемого в данных предложениях, переведите их на русский язык.

1.  This library is to serve some specific group of people.

2.  Some specific groups of people are to be served by this library.

3.  Special libraries must have limitation in subject scope.

4.  Special libraries must be limited in subject scope.

5.  Your report has to take into consideration the proposed option.

6.  Your report has to be taken into consideration while proposing new option.

7.  Professional libraries can present the exhaustive data on the inquired problem.

8.  Professional librarians can be and must be present in a special library.

9.  The typical special library may be visualized as a small one in staff size.

10.  An organization may maintain a collection of materials needed by its employees.

VIII A-5. Определите значение модальных глаголов, переведите предложения на русский язык:

1. This researcher can borrow these books tomorrow. 2. He may be at the lab now. 3. I needn’t check up the results. 4. I’m sure we can come to an agreement on this problem. 5. May I take these books with me? 6. Can you put it down for me? 7. You mustn’t bring up any of your conclusions until you get these data checked twice. 8. Does he need to write a thesis? 9. There is no sense in this statement. It must have been made by some dilettante. 10. How dare you speak to me like that? 11. I’m sure you can complete this experiment on your own. 12. You may come in and wait here. 13. Must I reload this time? 14. Need you report it in detail? Skip a bit. 15. If we start earlier we can still find the mistake. 16. I daren’t tell him the whole truth. 17. Do you know where the system operator is? – I’m not sure, she may be in the library. 18. You needn’t give the answer now, take time to think it over. 19. He must feel on top of the world after that he has been awarded for that book. 20. Well, can we start our discussion now? 21. I must finish this work today. 22. How dare you shout at me.

****Read the following jokes. Explain the meanings of the modal verbs and translate the jokes into Russian.

1. Father. How did Jimmy do in his history examination?

Mother. Oh, not at all well. But the poor boy is not to blame. He had to answer questions they oughtn’t to have asked him. They asked him things that happened before he was born.

2. Billy. Why should I wash my face, Ma?

Mother. Because it’s dirty.

Billy. But couldn’t I just powder (пудрить) it like you do?

3. “My poor fellow,” said a kind old lady giving a quarter to a beggar. “It must be terrible to be lame (хромой), but just think how much worse it would be if you were blind”.

“You are right, madam”, agreed the beggar, “when I was blind I was always getting false coins”.

4. “I hear your sister is sick in bed, Bobby,” remarked a neighbour. “Could you tell me what’s the matter with her?”

“We were playing a game seeing who could lean (высовываться) the furthest out of the window, and she won”.

Module B.

Reading

Look at the picture of a woman. Are you ready to share a flat with this type?

You are going to read a magazine article about two people who shared a flat. For questions 1-7, choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according to the text.

1. The writer of the passage wished

1)  she had Sam’s job.

2)  she was called Sam.

3)  she looked like Sam.

4)  she was an art student.

2. In the mornings Sam used to

1)  take a long time to put on her make-up.

2)  get ready for work very quickly.

3)  choose her clothes carefully.

4)  lie around before going to work.

3. The writer went back to sleep in the mornings because

1)  she couldn’t face the day ahead.

2)  she was always tired.

3)  she always went to bed late.

4)  she had no reason to get up.

4. The writer got to work late because

1)  she always had a big breakfast.

2)  she spent a long time getting ready.

3)  she wasn’t keen on her job.

4)  she didn’t get up in time.

5. Eventually the writer left her job because

1)  she wasn’t very good at teaching.

2)  her employer dismissed her.

3)  she got married.

4)  she knew she couldn’t get to work on time.

6. The writer felt that Sam was

1)  too tidy for her.

2)  a very fortunate person.

3)  a good person to share a flat with.

4)  unsympathetic towards her.

7. What do we find out about the writer of the passage?

1)  She didn’t get on with her flatmate.

2)  She lacked self-confidence.

3)  She paid great attention to her appearance.

4)  She was a well-organised person.

WHEN I was twenty-one, I came to live in London. I shared a damp basement flat with a beautiful ex-art student from Brighton. Her name was Sam. She had long brown hair and a slim figure that I was madly jealous of. She ate three chocolates bars for breakfast every morning.

I used to lie in bed looking at her eating and getting dressed, wondering how she could possibly consume so much sugar without losing her teeth, her figure or her complexion. She’d put on her make-up in under a minute, throw on whatever clothes happened to be lying around the room, and rush off to work looking like a model on the cover of a fashion magazine. Like me, she was just an art teacher in a secondary school.

ON the other hand, I used to put on weight if I even smiled at a bar of chocolate. I’d already lost several upper teeth, my face was spotty, and I looked like a heavyweight boxer whatever I wore.

M Y morning reaction to Sam was always the same. I’d shut my eyes, pull the blankets up over my head and force myself back to sleep. I knew that I really ought to get up too and make use of the early start to have a shower, iron my blouse, polish my shoes,

paint my nails and eat something for breakfast.

BUT I have never been what you’d call a morning person. The teaching job I was doing at the time was the only period of my life, thank goodness, that I’ve had to be anywhere by 8.30 a. m. Anyway, I needed a few extra comforting dreams after the shock of seeing Sam looking so beautiful. Going back to sleep to shut everything out, and using my bed as a favourite means of retreat became an addiction – my worst habit.

OF course, I overslept and was late for work every single day of the week. Eventually I was told if things didn’t improve I might be given the sack. So I gave up my job, and soon after I got married. I blame it all on Sam and her beauty.

Talking points

1.  If you wanted to share a flat with another person, what sort of person would you choose?

2.  Would you be an easy or a difficult person to get on with? Why?

3.  Retell the text

a) as it is b) as if you were Sam

 

Unit IX

Module A. Неличные формы глагола и их простые функции в предложении (Non-finite Forms and their Simple functions in Sentence)

Все сказуемые, которые – мы изучали до настоящего момента, были личными формами глагола. В английском языке существуют также и неличные формы глагола.

·  Основное отличие неличных форм глагола от личных состоит в том, что неличные формы глагола не могут образовывать сказуемое самостоятельно, они входят в него лишь как компонент наряду с глаголами в личной форме.

·  Кроме того, почти все неличные формы могут выполнять функцию любого другого члена предложения, а именно: подлежащего, дополнения, обстоятельства, определения.

·  Третье отличие неличных форм заключается в том, что у них есть только два параметра: вид и залог, категория времени у них отсутствует. Определение вида и залога происходит по тем же правилам что и у личных форм. Итак, в английском языке существуют 3 неличные формы глагола:

A.  Инфинитив с частицей to (to work/to take)

B.  Причастие I – форма с – ing – окончанием (working/taking)

C.  Причастие II – 3-я форма глагола; у правильных гл. с окончанием ed: у неправильных – определяется по таблице (worked/taken).

Чтобы правильно перевести эти формы на русский язык, необходимо уметь определять их параметры, находить в структуре англ. предложения и знать каким членом в предложении они являются.

Определение параметров неличных Форм

Как мы уже говорили, неличные формы глагола имеют 2 параметра вид и залог. Они определяются, также как и у личных форм. Например, у следующих форм:

1 инфинитивы

2 причастие 1

3 причастие II

to ask

having asked

asked

to be asked

having been asked

to have asked,

being asked

to have been asked,

asking

to be asking

*to have to go

*having to go

Формы to have asked, to have been asked, having asked, having been asked являются перфектными, а форма having to go, хотя и содержит to have, не является Perfect, т. к. после -ing стоит частица to. Форма to be asking является Continuous, а формы во втором столбике тоже содержат ing компонент, но не являются Continuous: т. к. ing компонент здесь первый, он является признаком неличной Формы, а не признаком вида. Остается неличная форма asked – причастие. Необходимо запомнить: причастие II имеет только одну форму. Это всегда страдательный залог passive и всегда неопределенный вид indefinite.

Таким образом, мы можем сделать вывод, что только инфинитив имеет вид Continuous. Формы being asked, asking, to ask, to be asked не являются ни Perfect, ни Continuous, значит они Indefinite.

Определим залог у этих форм. Формы to be asked, to have been asked, having been asked, being asked являются Passive, т. к. содержат оба признака пассива: глагол tо be + 3-я форма глагола. Остальные формы не содержат совокупности этих признаков. Исключение составляет форма asked – это причастие II, которые всегда употребляются в страдательном залоге.

EXERCISES

Определите вид и залог следующих форм:

IX A-1. (develop – развивать)

developing

been developed

to develop

to be developed

to be developing

having been developed

to have developed

developed

having developed

having to develop

IX A-2

written

having been written

to have written

writing

being written

having to write

to be writing

to write

having written

IX A-3 (melt – растапливать, таять)

to be melting

melted

having been melted

melting

being melted

to have melted

IX A-4 (land – посадить, сесть на землю, приземлить(ся))

landing

having been landed

to be landed

to land

being landed

has to land

Определение функций неличных форм в предложении

Вспомним члены предложения в английском языке:

·  Subject (подлежащее)

·  Predicate (сказуемое)

·  Object (дополнение)

·  Adverbial (обстоятельство)

·  Attribute (определение)

Неличные формы глагола могут употребляться в любой из этих функций, в отличие от личных форм, которые используются только в роли сказуемого (P)

Рассмотрим конкретно в каких функциях неличные формы употребляются.

Определениеподлежащего(s) и обстоятельства(adv), выраженных неличными формами.

Рассмотрим примеры: (retrieve – восстановить, сохранить)

Retrieving the necessary information from the WEB will take much time.

Retrieving the necessary information from the WEB researchers can find an answer in every field of human knowledge.

To retrieve the necessary information from the WEB is to take a series of certain steps.

To retrieve the necessary information from the WEB the researcher should take a series of certain steps.

Retrieved information can be seen on a screen in pictures, letters, graphics, etc.

В первом предложении подлежащим может быть только Retrieving.

Во 2 предложении подлежащее – researchers, значит Retrieving – обстоятельство(Adv).

В 3 предложении находим сказуемое – is to take – затем подлежащее – to retrieve

В 4 предложении подлежащим является the researcher , значит to retrieveобстоятельство(инфинитив цели)

В 5 предложении подлежащее – information, а retrievedопределение.

Иногда перед неличной формой глагола, являющейся обстоятельством может стоять союзное слово:

when когда

while в то время когда

after после того как

before перед

till(until) до, пока не

on при(когда)

provided при условии если

if если

В таком случае определение функции неличной формы и ее перевод значительно легче:

(Before translating) If translating, unknown words should be written out and memorized.

Итак, в качестве подлежащего Subject могут выступать:

— ing-форма

— инфинитив

Способы перевода:

1. Существительным в именительном падеже

2. Инфинитивом

(To write) Writing a thesis is a complicated task (Писать) Написание диссертации(ю) – непростая задача.

В качестве обстоятельства (Adv) могут выступать:

ing-форма

Инфинитив

причастие II (-ed/3форма)

Способы перевода:

1. Существительным с предлогом

Before writing a thesis you have to analyze a lot of data Перед написанием диссертации

2. Деепричастием

When collecting data you should be careful Собирая данные надо быть внимательным

3. Придаточным предложением

Until collected data could not be analyzed properly Пока данные не собраны, их нельзя проанализировать надлежащим образом

Дополнения (object) и определения (attribute), выраженные неличными формами.

Напоминаем, что дополнение Object в английском языке стоит справа от сказуемого и может иметь или не иметь перед собой предлог.

Определение Attribute выраженное – ing – формой может стоять как слева, так и справа от определяемого слова (такими словами могут быть подлежащее, дополнение и обстоятельство)

Если ing форма стоит справа от определяемого слова, то она в этой функции может ‘иметь перед собой предлог.

Определение, выраженное инфинитивом, всегда стоит справа от определяемого слова.

Посмотрим следующие примеры: (storage – хранение, automate – автоматизировать)

1.  The task of automating the process of information storage was given to computer scientists.

2.  Our efforts resulted in automating the process of information storage.

3.  The information to be stored, referred to the field of marine biology.

4.  We were ready to retrieve information from the Web site.

5.  The information preserved in this Web site has great importance.

6.  The lasting importance of this work is without doubt.

В первом примере ing – форма стоит справа от подлежащего и имеет перед собой предлог of , значит это определение:

Задача автоматизации процесса (автоматизировать процесс) хранения информации поставлена перед учеными-компьютерщиками.

Во втором примере ing-форма стоит справа от сказуемого и имеет пред собой предлог, значит это дополнение:

Наши усилия привели к автоматизации хранения формации.

В третьем предложении инфинитив стоит справа от подлежащего, выраженного information, значит это определение:

Информация, которую надо сохранить, относится к области морской биологии.

В четвертом предложении инфинитив стоит справа от сказуемого, значит это дополнение:

Мы готовы скачать информацию с сайта сети.

В пятом предложении ed-форма стоит справа от подлежащего, выраженного существительным information, значит это определение:

Информация, сохраняемая на веб-сайте, имеет большое значение.

В шестом предложении ing-форма стоит слева от подлежащего, выраженного словом importance, значит это определение:

Непреходящее значение этой работы – вне всяких сомнений.

Если в предложении 2 слова с окончанием ed следуют сразу после подлежащего и не имеют между собой запятой, то в большинстве случаев первое из них это-определение, выраженное ed-формой, а 2-ое сказуемое в прошедшем времени.

The data retrieved attracted our attention. Выведенные данные привлекли наше внимание.

The effect produced caused pain. Произведенный эффект вызвал панику.

Итак, в качестве дополнения могут употребляться инфинитив и ing-форма. На русский язык они переводятся:

— инфинитивом

— существительным (в косвенных падежах) В качестве Attribute – определения могут употребляться все неличные формы. На русский язык они переводятся:

— инфинитивом

— существительным (в косвенных падежах)

— причастием

EXERCISES

IX А-5. Определите, каким членом предложения является подчеркнутая неличная форма в каждом предложении: (construct – построить, dispatch – отправлять, отсылать)

1. Constructing indexes will take some time

2. To construct indexes search engines dispatch programs to every site

3. Constructing indexes search engines find the information asked by the user

4. To construct indexes is not a problem for a professional

5. Constructed indexes may be used as classifiers

6. Until constructed indexes cannot be used as classifiers

Module B.

Listening

Sports and hobbies

Read the following summary, then listen to the tape and fill in the missing words.

Surfing is the most exciting watersport there is. Serious surfes must be brave, love 1)……………….and have lots of energy. Many surfers travel around the 2)……………………going to surf festivals. Some surfers carry pagers which beep when there are 3)………………..reports of perfect conditions. Surfers are always in search of the best waves in an unspoilt 4)……………… . Professionales are in the 5)…………… every day, and do exercises with 6) ……………. . You don’t need to wear a 7)…………. in summer, but it can protect you from the hot 8)………… as well as from cold 9)………. . Professional surfers look as if they learned to surf as soon as they could 10)……… .

Reading

You are going to read an article about surfing. Choose the most suitable headings from the list (A-H) for each part (1-6) of the article. There is one extra heading which you do not need to use. There is am example at the beginning (0).

A.  Finding the waves

B.  Surfers love the crowds

C.  Surfing – it’s addictive

D.  Little equipment and a good trainer

E.  Never easy – but always enjoyable

F.  The international sport

G.  Learning from previous generations

H.  Two essentials: strength and fearlessness

Surf’s up!

Riding the waves can be the thrill of a lifetime. But what does it take to become a surfer?

0___C____

If you have ever dreamt about incredibly big seas with huge powerful waves crashing onto sandy beaches, then you should definitely think about learning to surf. It’s the most exciting watersport there is. Serious surfers must be very brave, love adventure and have lots of energy. Once they’ve experienced the excitement of a ride on top of the waves, they never want to stop.

1________

Surfers say they feel it’s the only place to be. Many travel around the world searching for the perfect wave, moving from one surf festival to another and checking weather forecasts to see where the really exciting waves are expected next. Some even carry pagers which beep when there are weather reports of perfect conditions. A surfer’s greatest disappointment would be missing the opportunity to surf in the best weather conditions.

2________

Hawaii is where the sport began – the place which most surfers see as their “true home”. They love nature and the excitement you get from the deep waters. Enormous waves crash along mile after mile of beautiful sand, and every surfer dreams of experiencing surfing in Maui or Oahu. Other great surfing locations include Australia, the west coast of the U. S., the Caribbean, Brazil, Japan, Hong Kong, South Africa, the Canary Islands, and Cornwall. Experienced surfers are always in search of the best waves in some totally unspoilt paradise that hardly anyone has heard of.

3________

It takes time for a beginner to learn the technique, but during a long hot summer, who minds practising? The professionals, of course, are in the sea every day, then come back onto the beach to do some exercises with weights. You need to be a strong swimmer with good balance and plenty of courage to be an expert surfer.

4________

You can surf almost anywhere in any weather if vow are wearing a wet suit. All you need to do then is choose a surfboard and you’re ready to go – hopefully into big waves that are warm, with an experienced teacher to lead you. You don’t need to wear a wet suit in summer, but many surfers keep them on all the time since they can protect you from the hot sun as well as from cold water.

5_______

It can take a few weeks or it can take a whole summer for you to learn to catch a wave at the right moment, stand up on your board and stay there. It’s an amazing feeling when you look down and see your feet on the board and realise you are finally standing up on the sea, even if you aren’t very steady. Professional surfers look as if they learned to surf as soon as they could walk. For example, Shane Powell, an Australian professional, watched videos of Australian surfing heroes like Peter Townsend, Barton Lynch and Tom Carpool as he was growing up. He says, “As a boy I’d watch those surfers and just imagine myself riding the waves.” Howell seems to move over the sea without any difficulty. He first prac­tised on small waves, but clearly had talent. By the age of 17 he was touring with the work ‘s best surfers, and now, at 23, he practises every day and an even younger generation of surfers study videos of him in action.

6________

Simply watching great surfers will make you want to try the sport. If you do try it, you’ll find muscles you never knew you had; you may begin to think you might never get it right, but you’ll have a lot of fun.

“First printed in British Airways High Life”

Vocabulary Practice

1.  Look at the words in bold in the text, and try to explain them.

2.  Fill in the correct word from the list below:

location

unspoilt

mind

disappointment

brave

steady

courage

experienced

opportunity

incredibly

generation

enormous

a.  The young skier was thrilled when he was given the……………..to take part in the Olympic Games. (chance)

b.  The police are looking for……………..divers to help them with their search. (practised)

c.  The game was……………. exciting – in fact I’ve never seen such a good game in my life. (unbelievably)

d.  A lot of weightlifters have………..muscles. (huge)

e.  I love to go hiking in areas of………………coun­tryside where I feel like I’m the only person on earth. (unaffected by human development)

f.  You have to be very ….. to be a Formula One racing driver. (courageous)

g.  Julia doesn’t…………….. working so hard to become a dancer – in fact, she pos­itively enjoys it. (object to)

h.  Hawaii was chosen as the best…………….for the surfing competition because of its impressive waves. (place)

i.  It was his…….. that kept him from panicking when his boat turned over. (bravery)

j.  At first, it’s very difficult to remain………………………….on ice skates. (balanced)

k.  The new…………… of professional athletes are extremely well paid. (age group)

l.  Terry felt great…. when he missed his favourite team’s final game. (regret)

3.  Fill in the correct word from the list below. Use the words only once.

to learn

powerful

to be

to do

to miss

to catch

to have

to love

weather

deep

strong

unspoilt

1………………..waters

2…………………..waves……………..

3 …………………….exercises

4……………………………….the opportunity

5……………………………..forecasts

6…………………………….in search of sth

7 ………………..a wave

8……………………. paradise

9 ………………………..the technique

10…………………..talent

11……………………………. adventure

12 a(n) ………………….swimmer

4. Underline the correct issue.

1.  Tony is only a(n) amateur/professional/champion cricketer, but he hopes to join the national team one day.

2.  Athletes have to keep exercised/trained/fit and healthy if they want to succeed.

3.  Most athletes wear a wet suit/costume/tracksuit to keep them warm when they are not participating in an event.

4.  Although our team did badly at first, we finally beat/won/defeated the game.

5.  Hundreds of chess players gathered in Moscow for the international chess race/tournament/game.

5. Fill in the correct preposition, then choose any five items and make sentences.

1) to dream ………..sth; 2) to dream …………..sth (imagine); 3) to be in search…….sth; 4)…….one place to another; 5) mile….mile; 6) ………….any weather; 7) to protect oneself……sb/sth; 8)……..the right moment; 9)……..any difficulty; 10)……action

Talking Points

1.  Read the text about surfing again and make notes under the following headings. Then talk about what it takes to become a good surfer.

qualities needed training equipment

2.  Are there any dangers involved in surfing?

3.  Can you think of any other dangerous sports?

 

 

UNIT X

Module A.

Неличные формы и их конструкции в предложении

(Non-finite forms and their constructions)

Конструкция с неличной формой это единый член предложения; он состоит из двух частей речи – существительного или местоимения или числительного + неличная форма; N (Pronoun, Numeral) + NonFinite.

мы имеем

N+ Infinitive

N+ ing – form

N+ ParticipleII

Конструкция может выполнять функцию любого члена предложения:

Complex Subject (Сложное подлежащее)

Complex Object (Сложное дополнение)

Complex Attributive (Сложное определение)

Complex Adverbial (Сложное обстоятельство)

Мы называем этот член предложения сложный, потому как только что было сказано, он состоит из двух частей. Внутри самой конструкции элементы относятся друг к другу как подлежащее и сказуемое, и можно сказать, что это заготовка для предложения. Следовательно, чаще всего мы переводим такую конструкцию как придаточное предложение, где N это подлежащее, а V сказуемое к нему.

Некоторые N+V являются всегда только одним членом вложения и это отражается в самом их названии, другие же могут выполнять различные функции. Начнём с первых.

Сложный субъектный инфинитивный оборот

The Subject Infinitive Construction.

Этот оборот является сложным подлежащим в предложении. Научимся его распознавать.

N+V: These data on the Web are said to have been found by search engines.

Находим в сказуемое – are said“. Оно стоит в страдательном залоге. Переведем его третьим способом “говорят”. Зададим вопрос от него, чтобы найти подлежащие: Говорят что? Попробуем ответить только с помощью одного члена нашей конструкции: “…что данные…” “…что найдены…”

Мы видим , что ни тот , ни другой вариант не может быть ответом на вопрос к подлежащему “что?”. Только переводя всю конструкцию как придаточное предложение , мы получим правильный ответ. “Говорят, что эти данные в Сети найдены с помощью поисковых машин”.

Данная конструкция может существовать, если в качестве сказуемого в страдательном залоге употребляются такие глаголы как:

— описывающие мыслительную деятельность (или высказывание )

То believe, to think, to consider, to know, to say, to expect, to imagine, to assume, to suggest, to find, to understand, to see, to hear, etc.

Такие глаголы всегда стоят в страдательном залоге. Например:

S Р O

Equal rights were considered/ heard/ expected/ thought/ to be provided to all the members of the society.

Считалось что всем членам общества обеспечены равные права

tо seem – казаться to appear, to prove – оказывается

Эти глаголы всегда стоят в действительном залоге. Например:

S Р O

These calculations seem/appear/prove to be wrong

Кажется/оказывается эти вычисления неверны

В качестве сказуемого к Complex Subject могут употребляться словосочетания:

to be likely – вероятно tо be unlikely – маловероятно, to be sure, to be certain – несомненно

S P О

Automated programs are sure/likely/unlikely to identify the characteristics of a document

Несомненно/вероятно/маловероятно, что автоматизированные программы определят характеристики документа

Как распознать Complex Subject with Infinitive?

Для этого необходимо найти:

·  соседство одного из вышеперечисленных глаголов в страдательном залоге из группы А и инфинитива;

·  соседство одного из вышеперечисленных глаголов в действительном залоге и инфинитива;

·  соседство одного из вышеперечисленных словосочетаний из группы С и инфинитива;

Если такая последовательность включает в себя любой другой глагол, например, обозначающий действие или состояние , то инфинитив будет простым обстоятельством или дополнением. Сравните:

Не came here to tell the truth. Он пришел сюда, чтобы рассказать правду.

Не proved to tell the truth. Оказалось, что он рассказал правду.

Внимание! Не забудьте, что глаголы из группы А) должны обязательно быть в страдательном залоге; если они стоят в действительном залоге, то вышеупомянутая конструкция отсутствует. Сравните:

Не is said to produce impression. He said to produce impression.

Говорят, он производит впечатление. Он сказал, чтобы произвести впечатление.

EXERCISES

Х А-1. Проанализируйте следующие предложения ; сгруппируйте их в две колонки: колонка А включает все предложения с Complex Subject with Infinitive, колонка В – все остальные. Переведите обе колонки: на русский язык. (indexing robots – quiery – запрос)

1.  Indexing robots are sure to perform sophisticated analysis.

2.  Search engines will do it to service your quiery.

3.  Indexing robots are understood to perform sophisticated analysis.

4.  Search engines thought for a while to service your quiery.

5.  Search engines are thought to service your quiery.

6.  Indexing robots understood this to perform sophisticated analysis.

7.  Search engines are unlikely to service your quiery.

8.  Indexing robots were suggested to perform sophisticated analysis.

Сложный объектный инфинитивный оборот

The Object Infinitive Construction

Этот оборот в предложении является сложным дополнением. Научимся его распознавать.

We know these data to be stored in search engine’s database.

Находим сказуемое know. Дополнение, как мы знаем всегда следует за ним. Задаём вопрос к этому дополнению. Мы знаем что? Попробуем ответить на него с помощью только одного компонента N+V, “…что эти данные…” или “…что хранятся…”. Очевидно, что ни первый, ни второй вариант не является полным ответом на вопрос, задаваемый к дополнению. Только переводя N+V как целое придаточное предложение, мы правильно ответим на наш вопрос:

Мы знаем, что эти данные хранятся в базе данных поисковой машины.

Сложный объектный инфинитивный оборот употребляется после тех же глаголов, с которыми употребляется сложное подлежащее:

believe, to think, to consider, to know, to say, , to expect, to want, to assume, to suggest, to tend, to feel*, to see*, to hear*, etc.

Но в отличие от первой конструкции они всегда стоят в действительном залоге. Если первый компонент Complex Object это – местоимение , то оно имеет такие формы как me, you, him, her, us, them . Признаком наличия Object Infinitive Construction является сказуемое в действительном залоге, выраженное одним из вышеперечисленных глаголов, за которым следует или существительное, или местоимение + инфинитив. На русский язык такое сложное дополнение лучше всего переводить придаточным предложением с союзами что, чтобы, как.

* после этих глаголов инфинитив употребляется без частицы to.

I’ve heard him play piano. Я слышал как он играет на пианино

We expect/know /want /believe him to help us

Мы ожидаем/ знаем/ хотим/ верим/ что (чтобы) он нам поможет(помог)

Если в качестве сказуемого употребляется другой глагол, не из этой группы, то Complex Object отсутствует, а инфинитив в таком случае выполняет функцию adverbial(обстоятельства).

/т. н. инфинитив цели/

S P O adver

I found this browser to make a quiery to the engine’s database.

Я нашёл этот образец, чтобы сделать запрос в базе данных поисковой машины.

Если второй компонент Complex Object употребляется в страдательном залоге, т. е. является пассивным инфинитивом, то эту конструкцию часто нужно переводить простым предложением:

The librarian supposed this catalogue to be finished as soon as possible. Библиотекарь намеревался закончить этот каталог как можно быстрее.

EXERCISES

Х А-2. Проанализируйте следующие предложения, сгруппируйте их в две колонки: колонка А включит все предложения с Complex Object, колонка В – остальные. Переведите обе колонки на русский язык.

1.  We expected the whole body of information in this site to grow very quickly.

2.  Our library has got some standards to facilitate automated indexing.

3.  He knows some standards to facilitate automated indexing.

4.  User wants URL (a uniform resource location) to represent the file residence.

5.  He used URL to find the file residence.

6.  Operator looked through the whole body of information to find out the necessary data.

Module B.

Reading

You are going to read an article about animal behaviour. Choose from the list A-I the sentence which best summarises each part (1-7) of the article. There is one extra sentence that you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning.

A

A variety of tricks are used.

F

Males cheat more.

B

Cheats may be more intelligent.

G

You couldn’t fool her.

C

This behaviour is familiar.

H

There maybe problems with research.

D

Abnormal behaviour is informative.

I

Parental help is requested.

E

Deception proves effective.

Nature’s cheats

0____I____

Anna is digging in the ground for a potato, when along comes Paul. Paul looks to see what Anna’s doing and then, seeing that there is no one in sight, starts to scream as loud as he can. Paul’s angry mother rushes over and chases Anna away. Once his Mum has gone, Paul walks over and helps himself to Anna’s potato.

1________

Does this ring a bell? I’m sure it does. We’ve all experienced annoying tricks when we were young – the brother who stole your toys and then got you into trouble by telling your parents you had hit him. But Anna and Paul are not humans. They’re African baboons, and playing tricks is as much part of monkey behaviour as it is of human behaviour.

2________

Throughout nature, tricks like this are common – they are part of daily survival. There are insects that hide from their enemies by looking like leaves or twigs, and harmless snakes that imitate poisonous ones. Such behaviour, developed over hundreds of thousands of years, is instinctive and completely natural. Some animals, however, go further and use a more deliberate kind of deception – they use normal behaviour to trick other animals. In most cases the animal probably doesn’t know it is deceiving, only that certain actions give it an advantage. But in apes and some monkeys the behaviour seems much more like that of humans.

3________

What about Paul the baboon? His scream and his mother’s attack on Anna could have been a matter of chance, but Paul was later seen playing the same trick on others. This use of a third individual to achieve a goal is only one of the many tricks commonly used by apes. Another tactic is the ‘Look behind you!’ trick. When one young male baboon was attacked by several others, he stood on his back legs and looked into the distance, as if there was an enemy there. The attackers turned to look behind them and lost interest in their victim. In fact, there was no enemy.

4________

Studying behaviour like this is complicated because it is difficult to do laboratory experiments to test whether behaviour is intentional. It would be easy to suggest that these cases mean the baboons were deliberately tricking other animals, but they might have learnt the behaviour without understanding how it worked. So the psychologists talked to colleagues who studied apes and asked them if they had noticed this kind of deception. They discovered many liars and cheats, but the cleverest were apes who clearly showed that they intended to deceive and knew when they themselves had been deceived.

5_____

An amusing example of this comes from a psychologist working in Tanzania. A young chimp was annoying him, so he tricked her into going away by pretending he had seen something interesting in the distance. When the chimp looked and found nothing, she ‘walked back, hit me over the head with her hand and ignored me for the rest of the day’.

6_________

Another way to decide whether an animal’s behaviour is deliberate is to look for actions that are not normal for that animal. A zoo worker describes how a gorilla dealt with an enemy. ‘He slowly crept up behind the other gorilla, walking on tiptoe. When he got close to his enemy he pushed him violently in the back, then ran indoors.’ Wild gorillas do not normally walk on tiptoe. Of course it’s possible that the gorilla could have learnt from humans that such behaviour works, without understanding why. But looking at the many cases of deliberate deception in apes, it is impossible to explain them all as simple imitation.

7_________

Taking all the evidence into account, it seems that deception does play an 70 important part in ape societies where there are complex social rules and relationships and where problems are better solved by social pressure than by physical conflict. The ability of animals to deceive and cheat may be a better measure of their intelligence than their use of tools. Studying the intelligence of our closest relatives could be the way to understand the development of human intelligence.

Talking points

1.  Did you play tricks on your brothers and sisters when you were a child? Do you regret your behaviour now? Have you ever tried to deceive any of the following people?

a friend a customs officer a boss

a parent a teacher a partner

2.  Why and how did you do it? What were the consequences?

3.  Comment on the pictures. What they might mean?

 

 

Unit XI

Module A. Конструкции с ing-формами в предложении

(The ing-form Constructions in a Sentence)

Такие конструкции могут выполнять функции разных членов предложения, а именно:

the Subject – подлежащего

an Object – сказуемого

an Adverbial – обстоятельства

an Attribute – определения

Каким именно членом предложения является конструкция Ving + N, мы определяем по ее месту в предложении относительно Predicate-сказуемого. Если первый элемент этой конструкции – местоимение, то оно может иметь такие формы, как: my, your, his, her, а также other, this, that, etc. Если первый элемент этой конструкции – одушевленное существительное, то оно может стоять в притяжательном падеже e. g. the librarians.

The Subject

Проанализируем следующее предложение:

Search engine constructing indexes and finding information on the Web is known to all users.

Находим сказуемое: Is known – известно. Пробуя каждое слово слева от сказуемого, ищем подлежащее: search engine. Слова могут быть или правым определением к подлежащему или вторым компонентом конструкции N + Ving.

Упрощенные конструкции предложения выглядят следующим образом:

engine is known или constructing/finding is known

Переведем сначала исходя из первого предположения: Поисковая машина , конструирующая индексы и находящая информацию в сети, известна всем пользователям. Маловероятно, что это правильно. Значит, верно второе предположение – формы являются компонентами конструкции N + Ving, значит, ее надо переводить придаточными предложением.

Такую конструкцию в роли сложного подлежащего лучше всего переводить, начиная со слов “то что…” или “тот факт, что …”.

Тот факт, что поисковая машина конструирует индексы и находит информацию в сети, известен всем пользователям.

Не забудем, что притяжательное местоимение his, my, etc. будет переводиться соответствующим личным местоимением, поскольку оно является подлежащим.

Their having identified characteristics of a document so quickly speaks on their professionalism. – Тот факт , что они определили характеристики документа так быстро, говорит об их профессионализме.

EXERCISES

XI A-1. Найдите в следующих предложениях N + Ving в роли Subject и переведите их на русский язык .

1.  Web search machines understanding electronic indexing makes them very useful in information professing.

2.  A human indexer’s describing a site’s rules for the collection and retention of programs can help crawlers in their search.

3.  Search engines’ recognizing text only is a drawback of automated indexing.

4.  The site’s assembling a map from different areas of its database on the user’s request helped to conduct research in many fields.

An Object

N + Ving может выполнять функцию дополнения. Разберем предложение:

We know of this paper being mentioned in a bibliographic reference.

Найдем сказуемое know – знаем. Слева подлежащее we – мы. Зададим вопрос от сказуемого к дополнению: Мы знаем что? Попробуем сначала ответить на него, исходя из предположения, что being mentioned является правым определением, или факультативным членом предложения, которым можно пренебречь, “не разрушая смысл предложения”. Мы знаем об этой статье. Очевидно, что при этом мы делаем ошибку, так как смысл предложения не ясен. being mentioned является здесь компонентом конструкции N + Ving; значит, переводится как сказуемое к слову paper.

Мы знаем о том, что это статья упоминается в библиографической справке.

EXERCISES

XI A-2. Найдите в следующих предложениях N + Ving в роли Object и переведите на русский язык.

1.  User insisted on his quiery being submitted to the database.

2.  We didn’t know of this method having being involved in the process of decision-making.

3.  Professionals are objecting to these data being used in catalogue.

An Adverbial

N + Ving может употребляться в функции обстоятельства как с предлогом, так и без предлога. В 1-м случае мы из предлога делаем союз, имеющий похожий смысл. Например, after переводится “после”, если он является предлогом и “после того как”, если союзом.

Рассмотрим предложение:

After information having been restricted Web crawler could examine it

Ищем сказуемое – could examine, слева подлежащее – Web crawler. Очевидно, что After information having been restricted может быть или Adverbial выраженным конструкцией N + Ving или существительным с правым определением. Если мы ответим на вопрос к обстоятельству когда?, исходя из второго предположения, то перевод будет выглядеть так:

После информации переструктурированной поисковая машина могла изучить ее.

Понятно, что наше предположение неправильное. Конструкцию N + Ving надо перевести придаточным предложением:

После того как информация была переструктурирована, поисковая машина могла изучить ее.

Рассмотрим второй случай , когда Adverbial употребляется без предлога. Распознать его тогда очень легко, т. к. оно всегда отделяется запятой и может стоять или в самом конце предложения, или в самом начале. В начале предложения такая конструкция переводится с помощью союза “когда”, “после того как” или “так как”, а в конце “а”, “и”, “причем”.

Sites content having been analyzed, he could make decision. – После того, как содержимое сайта было проанализировано, он мог сделать свой выбор.

Database included many various pieces of information, war archives forming a large part of its collection.База данных включала различные единицы информации, причем военные архивы составляли большую часть.

EXERCISES

XI A-3. Найдите конструкцию N + Ving в следующих предложениях. переведите на русский язык.

1.  In spite of his fulfilling cursory inspection, the length of the text was unknown.

2.  The Web search machines can construct indexes, the indexed information including the date of publishing.

3.  The users having been asked to reaffirm their request, necessary site was identified.

4.  User could have access to video image on the screen after his quiery having been serviced.

5.  Due to fulfilling all procedures, the programm was successfully run through the computer.

An Attribute

N + Ving конструкция может быть также определением в предложении, когда перед ней стоит предлог of.

Рассмотрим пример:

The problem of these data being deployed on the Web site arose before us.

Находим сказуемое arose – возникла, затем подлежащее – the problem. Значит, группа слов между ними of these data being deployed on the web site является определением. Переводим все предложение:

Проблема, заключавшаяся в том, чтобы разместить эту информацию на сайте, встала перед нами.

или: Проблема размещения этой информации на сайте встала перед нами.

EXERCISES

XI A-4. Переведите:

1.  The task of all parts fitting together was given to us.

2.  The idea of our friends being invited to join our trip came to our mind.

3.  The experiment resulted in a puzzle of some strange effects existing.

The Participle Construction

N + V (part) конструкция выполняет в предложении функцию обстоятельства. Она очень похожа на N + Ving конструкцию тоже Adverbial, когда последняя отделяется запятой и не имеет предлога перед собой.

Правило перевода такое:

1)  В начале предложения придаточным с союзами “если, когда, после того как”.

2)  В конце предложения с союзами “а, и, причем”.

The pattern designed, its image was displayed on the screen. – После того, как модель сконструировали, ее изображение было показано на экране.

-Categorization of metadata can range from author to type of document, text or video image always shown on the screen. – Категоризация метаданных может варьироваться от автора до типа документа, причем текст или изображение всегда выводится на экран

EXERCISES

XI A-5. Найдите в следующих предложениях Participle Construction и правильно переведите на русский язык.

1.  The way of information structurization changed, Web crawler could examine it.

2.  The user made a request, the information computed by the Web site during a search.

3.  The text recognized, we could retrieve what we needed.

4.  Covered image of a picture was shown of the screen, its cultural significance deduced by an expert.

Module B.

Reading

Think ahead

1.  You are going to read the true story of how Nigel Hughes flew to Brazil by accident. How do you think this could have happened?

2.  Read the article quickly, ignoring the spaces, to check whether your prediction was correct.

Settling into my seat on the plane, I felt tired and ready for a drink. I was really looking forward to getting home. As I sipped a glass of lemonade and pushed my seat back, I remember thinking, ‘Only a couple of hours and I’ll be home.’

I’d phoned my girlfriend, Georgina, from Copenhagen before the plane took off to tell her I was on my way. 0__________ . I’d make my own way home.

After another drink, I snoozed until I heard a flight attendant announce, ‘We will shortly be landing at Heathrow. 1__________ . And that was it. I honestly don’t remember another thing until I woke up again later on.

For a couple of minutes I sat wondering sleepily if we were still on our way down to Heathrow. Then I began to realise something funny was going on. The two seats next to me had been empty when I fell asleep. 2__________ . There’d been a little girl in front, who’d kept grinning me over the back of her seat. She had gone. And weirdest of all, the lights were off and everyone seemed to be asleep.

Slowly it began to dawn on me what had happened. The plane must have landed at Heathrow, let off some passengers, taken on others and set off on the next part of its journey. And I knew where that was to – Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil.

3__________ . Georgina would be wondering what had happened to me, and I was stuck on the plane with no ticket. Would they believe it was an accident?

Not knowing what else to do, I went to look for a flight attendant and told her what had happened. I found out it was about 3 a. m. and we were several hours into the eleven-hour flight to Brazil. The flight attendant thought it was very funny and told me not to worry. There wasn’t much anyone could do, anyway.

We landed in Rio at lunchtime on the Saturday. 4__________ . In fact, they took me straight to the departure lounge and told me that I had to sit and wait for the next flight to London, which was at ten o’clock.

The first thing I did was ring Georgina to tell her what had happened. 5__________ . So, I slipped out of the airport and jumped into a passing taxi. It was surprisingly easy!

As the driver took me round Rio and down to Copacabana beach, I thought about where I should be – at work. The thought of work reminded me of the valuable contract I knew I had now lost, which depressed me momentarily. But then realising that I couldn’t do a thing about it, I decided I might as well make the most of it.

In the late afternoon, I headed back to the airport. I had to confess that I’d sneaked out. The airline staff were not at all pleased and gave me an escort to watch my every move. 6__________. I wasn’t going to miss that plane home.

Fortunately, there were no problems or delays and we landed at Heathrow at lunchtime on the Sunday. I’d set off from Denmark forty-eight hours earlier, travelled 11,000 miles across the world and back, and landed back home again, tired, but otherwise none the worse for the experience.

Georgina recovered from the shock and was able to see the funny side of it, eventually. 7__________

Gapped text

1. Read the story again. Choose from sentences A-I the one which fits each gap 1—7. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning.

A  I was slightly worried that I might be hauled off the plane and locked up as an illegal immigrant.

B  As for me, I still haven’t worked out how I slept through a whole landing and take-off.

C  I couldn’t believe my luck!

D  However, I wasn’t planning on going anywhere else.

E  What on earth was 1 going to do?

F  ‘Better get my things together,’ I thought.

G  Having done that, I decided it would be a shame to be in Rio and not see any of it.

H  Now a man was lying across them sleeping.

I  She’d said she’d pick me up at Heathrow Airport, but I told her not to bother.

2. Discuss these questions in pairs.

A.  When did Nigel Hughes discover he was on the wrong plane?

B.  What had probably happened to the little girl?

C.  Why were the Rio airport staff angry with Nigel?

3. Answer the questions

1.  Has anything ever gone wrong when you’ve been travelling?

2.  What do you most like and most dislike about travelling by air?

4. Match the phrasal verbs in a-g with their meanings 1-7.

a.  We’ll come to the airport to see you off.

b.  If they set off at seven o’clock, they should be here by eight.

c.  I can give you a lift to the station. I’ll pick you up at six.

d.  You don’t need to drive me home. You can drop me off here.

e.  The plane took off on time despite the bad weather.

f.  We had to check in two hours before the plane left.

g.  On our way to Australia we stopped over in Singapore for two days.

1.  go somewhere to collect someone in a car

2.  register as a passenger at an airport

3.  go to a railway station, airport, etc., to say goodbye to someone

4.  break a journey to stay somewhere, especially when travelling by air

5.  begin a journey

6.  stop for someone to get out of a car

7.  leave the ground and begin to fly

5.  Discuss these questions.

a. If your flight was at 6 p. m., what time would you set off for the airport?

b. After you have checked in for a flight, what do you usually do?

c. Do you like people to come to the station or airport to see you off?

d. Do you feel nervous when the plane takes off and lands?

e. Would you pick a friend up at the airport if they arrived in the early morning?

f. Would you prefer to stop over somewhere on a long distance flight or fly direct to your destination

Talking points

Structure the text. Entitle its parts. Retell the text.

Look at Bidstrup’s comics below. Make a short funny story based on it. Have fun!

UNIT XII

Module A. Придаточные предложения (Subordinate Clauses)

В английском языке (как и в русском сложноподчиненные предложения Complex Sentence состоят из главного и придаточного предложений Principal Clause and Subordinate Clause. Между собой они соединяются с помощью союзов. Основные типы придаточных предложений соответствуют членам предложения. Каждый такой тип придаточного предложения имеет соответствующий союз. В качестве такого слова-связки могут также выступать союзные местоимения и наречия.

Название придаточного предложения

Союзы, союзные местоимения и наречия, соединяющие его с главным предложением

Примеры придаточных предложений

1. Придаточное предложение (The subject Clause). Подлежащее отвечает на вопросы: Кто? Что?

that – что

if, whether – ли

who – кто

what – что, какой

where – где

whose – чей

which – который

when – когда

how – как

why – почему

1.  a) Whether such a test will be a success is not clear. – Будет ли иметь это испытание успех неясно.

b) That the action should fail will become evident later. – То что эта акция потерпит неудачу, станет ясно позже.

2. Придаточное предложение (The Predicative Clause). Сказуемое отвечает на вопросы: Каково подлежащее? Что оно собой представляет? Что? Что оно такое?

2. The result is that this inquired book will be available only next week. – Результат заключается в том, что эта запрашиваемая книга будет доступна только на следующей неделе.

3.  Дополнительное придаточное предложение: (The Object Clause) Отвечает на вопросы: Что? О чем? На чем?

3. He said that this failure had resulted from one initial error. – Он сказал что эта неудача произошла в результате одной ошибки.

4.  Определительное придаточное предложение (The Attributive clause). Отвечает на вопрос: Какой?

Основные союзные слова:

a)  Who

whose – чей

which, what – который (неодушевл. сущ-е)

4. This page which was examined by the web crawlers is indexed with 5 letters. – Эта страница, которая была исследована поисковой программой сети, имеет индекс из 5 букв.

5.  Обстоятельственное придаточное предложение (The Adverbial clause). Отвечает на вопросы:

—  Когда?

—  С каких пор ?

—  Где, куда, как, каким образом?

—  Несмотря на что?

—  Для чего?

—  Если что?

—  Почему?

a)  whenкогда, wheneverвсякий раз когда, whileв то время как

b)  as – по мере того как, till (until) – пока (не), before (after) – до (после) того как

c)  where – где, куда, wherever – где бы ни

d)  because – потому что, since – т. к., as – т. к., for – т. к., либо, now that – теперь когда

e)  as – как, as if – как будто

f)  so that – т. к.

g)  though (although) – хотя

h)  so that – , in order that – для того чтобы

i)  if – если

Since this book is mentioned in a bibliographic reference it is easy to find it on the WEB site. – Поскольку эта книга упоминается в библиографической справке, ее легко найти на сайте Сети.

A professional indexer can describe components of an individual page of all sorts wherever client asks him to fulfil it. – Профессиональный индексатор может описать компоненты отдельной страницы любых видов всякий раз, когда клиент его просит сделать это.

EXERCISES

XII A-1. Insert connection words between the principal and subordinate clauses: wherever, which, until, so … that…, when, whether, how that, who, that.

1.  I met boatmen … had taken me across the river.

2.  … he came to the beach, the storm was at its height.

3.  The place was … delightful … we stayed there all summer.

4.  The commission, … consisted of ten members, was unanimous in its decision.

5.  I should like to know … they will come or not.

6.  They decided to remain in town … they received an answer to their letter.

7.  The problem is … this challenge cannot be taken just now.

8.  … he managed to do it remained unknown.

9.  … the river made its way, the vegetation was fresh, green and luxuriant.

Особенностью английских придаточных предложений является тот факт, что некоторые их виды соединяются с главным т. н. бессоюзным способом, т. е. союз вообще отсутствует. К таким видам относятся:

— дополнительные,

— определительные,

— обстоятельственные придаточные предложения.

В дополнительных придаточных предложениях иногда союз that опускается. При переводе его надо вставить.

We believe_ similar remarks may be made concerning other theories. – Мы полагаем, что аналогичные замечания можно сделать относительно других теорий.

Формальным признаком такого соединения является наличие рядом глагола (сказуемого) и существительного или местоимения (иногда с левым определением).

В определительных придаточных предложениях союзное слово (which, that, when, etc.) иногда опускается. При переводе оно восстанавливается.

We have described some of the methods we used in conducting our research. – Мы описали некоторые методы, которые мы использовали в проведении своего исследования.

This is the place we left 20 years ago. – Это то место, которое мы покинули 20 лет тому назад.

Формальным признаком бессоюзного соединения является наличие рядом двух имен: двух существительных или существительного и местоимения. В нашем случае place we.

В придаточных предложениях условия иногда союз “если” if, provided, etc. опускается и глагол ставится на 1-ое место перед подлежащим, т. е. помимо исчезновения союза происходит т. н. инверсия .

Сравните:

1. If this book were written in English, I could read it easily.

Если бы эта книга была написана по-английски, я бы смог легко прочитать ее.

2. Were this book written in English, I could read it easily.

Как можно видеть, оба предложения переводятся одинаково. Бессоюзные условные предложения начинаются с глаголов, или модальных глаголов в прошедшем времени.

EXERCISES

XII A-2. Определите, является ли это придаточным или главным предложением

1. it started to rain

2. after the runner fell down

3. before the telephone was invented

4. which no one clearly understood

5. she left because of you

6. what you said to me

7. a singer performed after dinner

8. because the chicken was burned

9. she has been crying a lot

10. when you left town

11. the cost of chicken has gone up

12. whom he saw at the theatre

13. exercise promotes health

14. walking develops leg muscles

15. winning is not everything

16. that apples are very nutritious

17. while the choir was singing

18. if prices continue to climb

19. they arrived after the deadline

XII A-3. Определите, является ли это главным предложением, придаточным или фрагментом предложения

the water is used for irrigation

2. which is used to make chewing gum

3. a famous talk show host

4. her hopes for the future

5. the population increased greately

6. a brain infection causing jerking

7. the fourth largest city of the state

8. although the law was repealed

9. who lived in Oregon

10. several different writing systems

11. when the radio was invented

12. the first ships were only logs

13. molluscs live in shells for protection

14. a city located near the coast

15. a boat floating down the river

16. staying busy makes the time fly

17. alligators living in Florida

18. before inflation slowed

19. because the temperature is never high

20. walking burns many calories

XII A-4. Является ли выделенная часть главным, придаточным предложением или фрагментом предложения, переведите.

1. The aardvark, which hunts at night, feeds entirely on ants and termites.

2. In a group of African musicians, the drummer will probably serve as the leader.

3. Before he entered public service in 1794, John Quincy Adams was a successful Boston lawyer.

4. Former President Dwight Eisenhower considered himself a Kansas although he was born in Denison, Texas.

5. King Edward VIII of England abdicated his throne in 1936 because the government disapproved of his marriage plans.

6. In terms of population, Bangkok is quite a bit larger than Barcelona.

7. Adsorption, which is often confused with absorption, refers to a mixing or intermingling of two substances.

8. Through his use of the mobile, Alexander Calder created a new definition of sculpture.

9. When winter descends on North America, the weather in Acapilco, Mexico is warm and pleasant.

10. An accountant is a person who organises, maintains, analyses, and interprets business records.

11. In ancient Chinese medical procedure, acupuncture involves the insertion of thin metal needles into various parts f the human body.

12. An adult American alligator will range in length from six to twenty feet.

13. Sacramento, the capital of California, is located about ninety miles Northeast of San Francisco.

14. As the price of pocket calculators has dropped, engineering students have almost completely given up slide rulers which were once extremely popular.

15. Although growing children need up to twelve hours of sleep in some cases, many adults do well on only six hours per night.

16. The tsetse fly is primarily responsible for the transmission of the sleeping sickness from one victim to another.

17. Florida is located at about the same latitude in the northern hemisphere as parts in South Africa are in the southern hemisphere.

18. Born in Athens about 469 BC, Socrates was the son of a sculptor.

19. The sextant is an instrument that is used by navigators to find their location on the earth’s surface.

20. Saturn is the second largest planet in our solar system and the sixth from the Sun.

XII A-5. Переведите, обращая внимание на отсутствие союзных слов. Восстановите союзные слова.

1.  The twenty-eight space missions the US launched in the 60’s and 70’s involved very expensive spacecraft NASA could use only once.

2.  The rocket system engineers designed launched the spacecraft successfully but burned up as it fell to earth.

3.  The capsule the astronauts rode in was also designed to be used only once.

4.  The Space Transportation System programme President Nixon approved in 1972 called for the development of a spacecraft NASA could reuse many times.

5.  The design NASA selected for the STS programme is made up of three main parts.

6.  The part the astronauts can control is the cargo-carrier.

7.  The first STS flight NASA had originally scheduled for April 10 finally lifted off on Sunday, April 12, 1981.

8.  The first launch was delayed because of a problem with the computer system the spacecraft used.

9.  The astronaut the NASA officials chose for the first STS flight had a great deal of experience because of the five other space flights he had made.

10.  The STS flight NASA launched in April 1981 was intended to be the first of many shuttle flights the US would send up in the following years.

Module B.

Reading

Volcanoes

1. Answer these questions about volcanoes. Guess if you don’t know.

a. Approximately how many active volcanoes are there in the world?

1 150

2 550

3 1,350

b. How many people live in the vicinity of an active volcano?

1 million

2 10 million

3 1 billion

c. Where is the world’s largest active volcano?

1 Italy

2 Hawaii

3 Mexico

The Last Day of Pompeii by Karl Bryullov

Read the text quickly to check your ideas.

They died where they stood. Violently, with almost no warning. Wealthy women in their jewels. Armed soldiers. Babies. Almost 2,000 years ago a seaside town in southern Italy had the misfortune to be in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius – one of Europe’s active volcanoes – at the wrong time. The 16,000 inhabitants of the Roman towns of Herculaneum and neighbouring Pompeii who were buried beneath 30 metres of dust on an August night in ad 79 bear silent witness to the destructive force of volcanoes.

Objects of terror and fascination since the beginning of human time, volcanoes take their name from Vulcan, the Roman god of fire. Today there are some 1,350 active volcanoes in the world: At any given moment, somewhere between one dozen and two dozen are throwing out ash and molten rock from the earth’s core.

Approximately one billion people live in their dangerous shadows. Experts expect the number to rise. The rapid growth of population, greater competition for land and an increase in urban migration are driving more and more people to settle around volcanoes, significantly increasing the potential loss of life and property in the event of eruptions.

Despite major advances in technology, the ability to predict when a volcano might erupt remains imprecise. But meeting the challenge is vital because volcanoes are ‘people magnets’. A recent study identified 457 volcanoes where there are one million or more people living within 100 kilometres. Many of these volcanoes – several in Indonesia and Japan, for instance – have surrounding populations greatly exceeding one million. Today, 3.75 million people live within 30 kilometres of the summit of Mount Vesuvius in the southern Italian city of Naples. ‘What do they do if it starts erupting? No one can imagine evacuating a city the size of Naples,’ said С Dan Miller, chief of the US Geological Survey’s Volcano Disaster Assistance Program.

28

 

‘Persuading people to move permanently out of hazard zones is not usually an option. Many of the land-use patterns are long established, and people just won’t do it’, Miller went on. ‘The only thing you can do is have systematic volcano monitoring to detect the earliest departure from normal activity.’

Nowadays it is easier to predict volcanic activity, but evaluating the threat of eruption is frequently still difficult. Mexico City knows the problem well. The city, which has a population of more than twenty million, lies within 60 kilometres of the summit of Popocatepetl, a volcano which has erupted at least fifteen times in the last 400 years. The flanks and valleys surrounding ‘Popo’ have been evacuated several times since 1994 in response to earthquakes and eruptions of volcanic ash and plumes of steam. Each time the mountain has settled down without a major eruption, although some activity has continued. Yet when, or if, a major eruption will occur next remains unknown.

‘There could be weeks, months, or years between the time a volcano shows some activity and the time of its eruption,’ said Miller. ‘It may never erupt. Most people are willing to be evacuated once. But if nothing happens, the loss of credibility could cause people to ignore future warnings.’

Volcanic eruptions, when they do come, are sometimes relatively slow and quiet. There was no loss of life when the world’s largest active volcano erupted in 1984. The people who lived in the proximity of Hawaii’s Mauna Loa volcano had plenty of time to get out of the way when it erupted in 1984. Its lava crept down the slope at about the speed of honey. At other times the eruption is sudden and violent, and evacuation unfortunately comes too late.

Read questions 1-7 below. Then, read the article again and choose the correct answers.

1. What happened when Mount Vesuvius erupted in AD 79?

1)  The rich managed to escape.

2)  It covered many towns with dust.

3)  A few people were killed.

4)  People were unprepared.

2. What do experts think will happen in the future?

1)  More volcanoes will become active.

2)  People will move away from volcanic areas.

3)  More people will set up home near volcanoes.

4)  Around one billion people will die in volcanic eruptions.

3. According to the article, what is the present situation regarding volcanic eruptions?

1)  Eruptions arc most likely to happen in Indonesia and Japan.

2)  Experts can predict when there will be a volcanic eruption.

3)  Most large cities have no appropriate evacuation plans in place.

4)  People will be less affected than before.

4. What does ‘do it’ in line 28 refer to?

1)  Go and live somewhere else

2)  Build farms on the land

3)  Force people to leave the area

4)  Leave the area until the danger has passed

5. What does the article say about Popocatepetl?

1)  There was a major eruption in 1994.

2)  Experts expect a major eruption within a few years.

3)  Nobody knows whether it will erupt again.

4)  People who live nearby are fed up with being evacuated.

6. Why was the eruption of Mauna Loa less dangerous?

1)  People had been evacuated from the area beforehand.

2)  People were able to keep ahead of the lava.

3)  Scientists had warned people well in advance.

4)  It was not a major eruption.

7. What would be the most appropriate title for this article?

1)  Volcanoes: Sleeping threat for millions.

2)  Volcanic eruptions and other natural disasters.

3)  Volcanic activity in Italy.

4)  Volcanic eruption: A study of volcanic behaviour.

Word building

1. Underline all the nouns in the text related to these root verbs. What do they have in common?

Compete erupt evacuate fascinate populate migrate

2. Underline all the adjectives in the text related to these root verbs and nouns.

act danger destroy science system volcano

3. Complete these sentences with an appropriate word made from the root word in brackets.

a. A great deal of __________research is being carried out on volcanoes. (science)

b. It is __________to play golf during a thunderstorm. (danger)

с. The early nineteenth century was a period of mass __________from Ireland. (migrate)

d. The police made a __________search of the area where the crime was committed. (system)

e. I have never really understood the__________some people have for tornadoes. (fascinate)

f. The__________of Western European countries is ageing. (populate)

g. Despite the fact that he is in his eighties, he still leads an__________life. (act)

h. There was fierce __________ between the companies for the government contract. (compete)

Talking points

Over to you:

Why do people choose to live near volcanoes? Would you?

Why would it be so difficult to evacuate a large city? Can you think of any solutions to the problems?

 

Make up questions to the text covering its key ideas(15-20). Retell the text.

APPENDIX 1

How to retell a text

1. Look through the text. What is its main topic? What field is it in? What is its main idea?

Start with…

“It’s an abstract from the (research) work of a famous/well-known/major/ scientist(historian, linguist, economist, theorist, analyst, practitioner, etc.)

The article I’ve just read deals with the problems of…

The article might be regarded a part of a bigger research which deals in…

The main topic of this article is…

This chapter is devoted to…

The main questions touched upon by this chapter/article/work are numerous. They are…

This original paper/article/work addresses itself to some of the central issues in (the relevance theoretic research, modern economic theory of… etc)

The aim of the article is to investigate/explore/show/help understand/ some of the issues of…

This chapter/article provides an outline of the theoretical basis of…

2. Now read the text more carefully. What parts can you divide it into? How many parts are there?

3. Work on the parts of the text one by one (the parts the text falls into may show as paragraphs). What is the main idea of each part? Try to find the topic statements or sentences in each part and put them down. They might be 1-2 sentences at the beginning of each paragraph but not necesserily.

Use…

Several paragraphs of the article investigate…(the distinction, the features, characteristics of..)

In (the) other part(s) of the article/chapter the author explores.. ( the role of the theoretic notion of…)

Some of the central issues dealt with in this part are…..

The author

shows…

combines ideas of…

assumes that…

further develops the idea that…

examines the data received from…/the matter/major theoretic perspectives of…

explores the methodological issues of…

pays tribute to….

By concentrating on….., the authors analyze how…..

This exploration provides a description of……, and also reveals the nature and significance of…..

4. Now add some details to the sceleton. They can be from the text – some interesting facts that illustrate the theory or what not. Think of some opinions of your own: what do you think of this or that idea of the author? Does this matter seem interesting to you? Does it go with your own research? Do you agree with the hypotheses presented? Let your statements be noticeable, expressive and persuading, and logical.

Use:

Let’s see how the author proves (that)…..

I would like to point out that…

I would like to attract your attention to the following…

To my opinion this supposition/idea/ is…

We should bear in mind that…

I would rather prefer to consider…. /take it like this:….

As for me I don’t think that…

I’m afraid but…

I do not quite agree that…

I cannot but praise…(the work of this author.. etc.)

IV. Now you seem ready. Start to speak and…good luck!

Here is a good example of the annotation of a book:

By the analysis of different theories, following a similar outline for each of them, this book permits a critical reflection on these questions. It also aims at making the current research in which these theories are present more accessible for the reader. Moreover, this research, by considering issues on (the dynamics of the processing of information, its contextualisation, and the fundamental cognitive abilities of the speaker,) is also in line with broader issues concerning, for instance, different domains of (computer science or also cognitive) sciences. The different theories dealt with are (First Order Predicate Logic, Intensional Semantics, Boolean Semantics, General Semantics (Vanderveken), Dynamic Semantics, Situation Theory and Cognitive Grammar).

 

APPENDIX 2

WORKING ON THE TOPIC: MY SCIENTIFIC (RESEARCH) WORK

USEFUL TIPS

Plan your topic as follows:

1)  The field which you major in and the title of your future thesis

·  I work in the field of….

My major interest is in the field of….

My scientific research deals with the problems of… which is in the field of….

·  The title of my future thesis is….

I work under the guidance of professor…

My tutor is….

The research I am doing now is a part of a bigger work../ within the framework of the academic research conducted by professor…/a group of scientists…

This work is devoted to an important problem into which too few scientists have researched until now.

Earlier studies of this subject show that the problem has not been yet properly explored.

·  Words and word combinations

analysis n (pl – ses) анализ, исследование, подробное рассмотрение critical analysis — критический анализ

advanced research — перспективные исследования

basic research — фундаментальные исследования

to be engaged in research — заниматься научно-исследовательской работой

This researches cover a wide field —исследования охватывают широкую область

after the study of the matter — после изучения этого вопроса …

humane studies — гуманитарные науки

history and allied studies — история и родственные ей предметы

a new study of Shakespeare — новая работа /книга/ о Шекспире

pilot study — предварительное, экспериментальное исследование

desk study — чисто теоретическое исследование

thorough examination — а) всестороннее исследование; б) тщательное изучение (материала)

to carry on an investigation — проводить исследовательскую работу

the scientific method of inquiry — научный метод исследования

2)  The main aims of your research work and the tasks to complete:

·  My study deals in the problems of…/is devoted to the investigation of…

It touches upon the problems of…

·  The main purpose/goal/aim of it is…to find out/to define/to characterize/explore/to investigate/to analyse/to gain/…..

It is aimed at…..

·  I set myself a task to/of…

the tasks that face us /that we are faced with/are as follows….

Its objectives are the following:

3)  Data for the study and methods to be applied, results and application:

·  we must apply…. to finding a solution — мы должны применить…., чтобы решить эту задачу

comparative [experimental] method of investigation — сравнительный [экспериментальный] метод исследования

his method is to compare different versions — его метод состоит в сопоставлении разных вариантов

there are several methods of doing this — существует несколько способов сделать это

ampliative inference — индуктивный метод

a method that is attended by some risk — метод, связанный с некоторым риском

convenient method — подходящий метод

to approximate to a solution of the problem — подходить к решению задачи

To use… approach(to) – подход

interdisciplinary approach — подход с точки зрения различных наук

·  We began the work by collecting material —Мы начали работу со сбора материала

we have two problems before us — перед нами две задачи

data for study — материал исследования

laboratory data — данные лабораторных исследований

adequacy of data — достоверность данных

· 

 

acceptance of a theory — согласие с какой-л. теорией

application of a theory in actual practice — применение теории в практической деятельности

the backbone of a theory — основа теории

to back up a theory with facts — подкрепить теорию фактами

to construct a theory — создать теорию (see construct II)

the results of the experiment contradicted this theory./agreed with the theory — результаты опыта шли вразрез с этой теорией/согласовывались с теорией

APPENDIX 3

Таблица неправильных глаголов

beat beat beat

become became become

begin began begun

blow blew blown

break broke broken

bring brought brought

buy bought bought

catch caught caught

choose chose chosen

come came come

draw drawn drawn

drink drank drunk

eat ate eaten

fall fell fallen

feel felt felt

find found found

forget forgot forgotten

get got got

go went gone

hear heard heard

hold held held

keep kept kept

know knew known

lay laid laid

leave left left

let let let

lie lay lain

lose lost lost

make made made

mean meant meant

meet met met

pay paid paid

put put put

read/ri:d/ read/red/ read/red/

ring rang rung

run ran run

say said said

see saw seen

sell sold sold

send sent sent

set set set

show showed shown

sing sang sung

sit sat sat

sleep slept slept

speak spoke spoken

spend spent spent

stand stood stood

strike struck struck

swim swam swum

take took taken

teach taught taught

tell told told

think thought thought

throw threw thrown

understand understood understood

wake woke woken

wear wore worn

write wrote written

 

Список использованной литературы

1. Власова, Е. Л. Пособие для научных работников по развитию навыков устной речи / Е. Л. Власова. − Ленинград , 1988.

2. Zimakova E. L. English for Librarians Internet-users/ Е. Л. Зимакова. − Самара: СГАУ, 1998.

3. Year, J., Year, R. Cambridge Preparation for the TOEFL Test / UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

4. Haines, S., Stewart B. First Certificate Masterclass / UK: Oxford University Press, 1998.

5. Evans, V., Dooley, J. Enterprise 4 / London: Express Publishing, 2002.

 

KEYS

Unit I

Module B

1. cooking

2. hotel

3. guests

4. fast

5. high

6. cancer

7. time

8. decreased

9. liver

10. stressful

Listening

(p. 12)

Reading (pp. 12-14)

1. D 2. G 3. F 4. A 5. E

Vocabulary Practice (pp. 14-16)

2.

1. nutrients

2. let alone

3. limit

4. signify

5. research

6. tend to

7. adolescence

8. glowing skin

9. rejecting

10. gain

11. predicting

12. consume

3.

1. fast-moving

2. chocolate

3. couch potato

4. to keep

5. high

6. junk

7. eating

8. heart

9. the pressures

10. saturated

11. room

12. to do

13. balanced

14. gourmet

15. vast

16. side

4. 1. C 2. A 3. D 4. A

5.

1. with

2. in

3. with

4. of

5. from

6. with

7. in

8. of

9. on

10. to

Unit II

Module B

1. D

2. B

3. D

4. B

5. B

6. A

Reading (pp. 20-22)

Vocabulary Practice (pp. 22-23)

2.

1. socialize

2. novice

3. face

4. masculine

5. get my foot in the door

6. support

7. professional

8. confidence

9. courage

10. mature

3.

1. tough

2. to give

3. to win

4. to damage

5. limit

6. popular

7. casually

8. to take

9. on equal terms

10. to wear

11. to prove

12. a champion’s

4.

1. career

2. job

3. occupation

4. profession

5.

1. about

2. with

3. on/ about

4. about

5. about/ by

6. of/ about

7. with

8. in

9. at

10. to/ on

11. with/ by

12. in

13. to

14. with

Unit III

Module B

6. teams

7. helper

8. problems

9. amazing

10. fun

1. empty

2. libraries

3. Internet

4. skills

5. responsibility

Listening

(p. 32-33)

Reading (pp. 32-34)

1. F 2. E 3. A 4. H 5. G 6. B

Vocabulary Practice (pp. 35-36)

2.

1. skills

2. issues

3. approach

4. concentrate on

5. motivation

6. tolerance

7. abandon

8. participate

9. merely

10. concept

3.

1. cooperative

2. to feed

3. operating

4. life

5. education

6. to go on

7. to share

8. to work

9. changing

10. to solve

11. mathematics

12. to tear

4.

1. department

2. alike

3. coached

4. paused

5. technique

5.

1. to

2. on

3. with

4. for

5. with

6. to

7. in

8. with

9. to

10. in

11. in

12. on

13. for

Unit IV

Module B

Jurassic Park

Volcanoland

Miniland

Energizer

Mickey Mania, Parade

Universal Studios, America

Sentosa, Singapore

Legoland, Denmark

Alton Towers, the Midlands

Magic Kingdom, Florida

Listening

(p. 40)

Reading (pp. 41-42)

1. E 3. B 5. B 7. D 9. D

2. A 4. C 6. E 8. E 10. B

Vocabulary Practice (pp. 42-44)

2.

1. destination

2. enthralled

3. convinced

4. plunge

5. accessible

6. ranging

7. fizzy

8. depicted

9. admission

10. petrifying

11. sedate

12. policy

3.

1. individually

2. boat

3. tropical

4. cable

5. miniature

6. to scream

7. to pay

8. to pose

9. snack

10. value

4.

1.  autograph

2.  fireworks

3.  cable-car

4.  stage

5.

1.  by

2.  into

3.  for

4.  of

5.  on

6.  for

7.  on

8.  through

Unit V

Module B

Listening

(pp. 51) 1. c 2. a 3. e 4. b 5. f 6. d

Reading (pp. 51-53)

1. B

2. A

3. D

4. A

5. B

6. D

7. A

Vocabulary Practice (pp. 53-54)

2.

1. transform

2. explore

3. metropolis

4. claims to be

5. sophisticated

6. head for

7. exclusive

8. gear

9. revealed

10. experience

11. restore

12. lively

3.

1. to give

2. to bring

3. grand

4. department

5. meeting

6. a pint

7. gurgling

8. visual

9. highly

10. historic

11. heavy

12. reasonably

13. full

14. sophisticated

15. pavement

16. cosmopolitan

4.

1. stopped

2. trip

3. historical

4. brochure

5. shore

6. excursion

5.

1. into/ by

2. on

3. away from

4. about

5. for

6. for

7. of

8. of

9. about

10. about/ of

11. by; in/ on

12. by; in

13. on

14. for

Unit VI

Module B

A.  start

B.  September

C.  two-day

D.  last

E.  poet

Listening

(p. 60)

Reading (pp. 60-62)

1. B

2, 3. C, E (in any order)

4. D

5. B

6, 7, 8. A, C, E ( in any order)

9. D

10. A

11. C

12. A

13. E

14, 15. A, C (in any order)

Vocabulary Practice (pp. 62-64)

2.

1. carve

2. souls

3. afford

4. supported

5. regional

6. dyes

7. contest

8. sculpture

9. permanent

10. available

11. occupied

3.

1. to mark

2. street

3. beautifully clothed

4. by far

5. to honour

6. entrance

7. to commit

8. evil

9. boat

10. deafening

11. to make

12. to greet

4.

1. costumes

2. procession

3. gathered

4. remember

5. entrance

5.

1. to

2. at

3. of

4. for

5. of

6. with

7. in

8. at

9. in

10. at

11. on

12. with

Unit VII

Module B

6.  calm

7.  traumatic

8.  scared

9.  won’t

10.  90%

1.  1994

2.  60

3.  billion

4.  crack

5.  Pacific

Listening

(pp. 71)

Reading (pp. 71-73)

1. B 2. G 3. C 4. A 5. D

Vocabulary Practice (pp. 73-74)

2.

1. intense

2. rocked

3. restricted

4. howling

5. estimated

6. strengthened

7. survivors of

8. cling

9. impact

10. recalled

3.

1. massive

2. to take

3. to make

4. crust

5. shelter

6. wake-up

7. steel

8. plane

9. to blow

10. front

11. to stay

12. seismic

4.

1. think

2. thrilled

3. tiny

4. cause

5.

1. to

2. to

3. in

4. with

5. onto/ to

6. of

7. of

Unit VIII

Module B

Reading (pp. 78-80)

1. C 2. B 3. A 4. D 5. D 6. B 7. B

Unit IX

Module B

Listening

(p. 85)

Reading (pp. 86-87)

1. A 2. F 3. H 4. D 5. G 6. E

Vocabulary Practice (pp. 87-89)

2.

1. opportunity

2. experienced

3. incredibly

4. enormous

5. unspoilt

6. brave

7. mind

8. location

9. courage

10. steady

11. generation

12. disappointment

3.

1. deep

2. powerful

3. to do

4. to miss

5. weather

6. to be

7. to catch

8. unspoilt

9. to learn

10. to have

11. to love

12. strong

4.

1. amateur

2. fit

3. tracksuit

4. won

5. tournament

5.

1. about

2. of

3. of

4. from

5. after

6. in

7. from

8. at

9. without

10. in

Unit X

Module B

Reading (pp. 93-95)

1. C 2. E 3. A 4. H 5. G 6. D 7. B

Unit XI

Module B

Reading (pp. 99-102)

Think ahead 1.

check students understand the meaning of the extract by asking these questions: Where has Nigel Hughes been? (Copenhagen) Where was he going? (Heathrow) Why did he end up in Brazil? (He fell asleep and didn’t get off the plane at Heathrow. The plane then went on to Brazil). How did he get home eventually? (on the next flight back to England)

Gapped text

3.

1. F 2. H 3. E 4. A 5. G 6. D 7. B

Extra sentence: C

4. Key

a. When he woke up and saw that there were different people on the plane

b. She had probably got off

c. He had escaped from the airport

5. p. 101

a. 3 c. 1 e. 7 g. 4

b. 5 d. 6 f. 2

Unit XII

Module B

Reading (pp. 107-110)

Think ahead

1 Key

a. 3 b. 3 c. 2

Multiple – choice

3. You may like to check students understand the following words in the text: molten (burning), earth’s care (central part of the earth), growth (increase), potential (what’s possible), imprecise (inexact), evacuating (leaving a place to escape danger), hazard zones (dangerous places), monitoring (observing, checking), detect (find), evaluating (understanding, accessing), plumes (clouds, columns), loss of credibility (when smth. is no longer believed), proximity (surrounding area)

Key

1.  D 4. A 6. B

2.  C 5. C 7. A

3.  C

Word – building (p.110)

4 Key

compete – competition

erupt – eruption

evacuate – evacuation

fascinate – fascination

populate – population

migrate – migration

They are all formed with the suffix–tion

5 Key

act – active

danger – dangerous

destroy – destruction

science – scientific

system – systematic

volcano – volcanic

6 Key

a. scientific e. fascination

b. dangerous f. population

c. migration g. active

d. systematic h. competition

Over to you (p.111)

Possible answers

People often choose to live near volcanoes because the agricultural land is very fertile. It would be difficult to evacuate a large city because people might panic, the transport network could get congested, and emergency accomodation would be required. The best solution would be to practise and make full use of emergency services.

 

 

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК ДЛЯ АСПИРАНТОВ

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Составители:

Ашихманова Наталья Александровна,

Брылева Вилена Александровна

Главный редактор А. В. Шестакова

Оформление обложки Н. Н. Захаровой

Печатается в авторской редакции с готового оригинал -макета.

Подписано в печать 18.06 2007 г. Формат 60´84/16.

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Вместе с этим читают:
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